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Clinical diagnosis and severity of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are determined by trained clinicians based on clinical evaluations of observed behaviors. As such, this approach is inevitably dependent on the expertise and subjective assessment of those administering the clinical evaluations. There is a need to identify objective biological markers(More)
Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) tend to make inadequate social judgments, particularly when the nonverbal and verbal emotional expressions of other people are incongruent. Although previous behavioral studies have suggested that ASD individuals have difficulty in using nonverbal cues when presented with incongruent verbal-nonverbal(More)
To define the antagonist pharmacology of spinal antinociceptive effects of alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonists, the ability of WB4101 (2-(2,6-dimethoxyphenoxyethyl)-aminomethyl-1,4-benzodioxane) and imiloxan to antagonize the effect of spinal ST-91 (2-[2,6-diethylphenylamino]-2-imidazoline), clonidine and dexmedetomidine was examined. Antinociceptive effects of(More)
IMPORTANCE Sociocommunicational deficits make it difficult for individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) to understand communication content with conflicting verbal and nonverbal information. Despite growing prospects for oxytocin as a therapeutic agent for ASD, no direct neurobiological evidence exists for oxytocin's beneficial effects on this core(More)
To examine the pharmacology of the spinal alpha receptor which modulates nociceptive transmission, the antinociceptive effects (52.5 degrees C hot plate; HP) of three i.t. administered alpha-2-preferring agonists [dexmedetomidine (DMET); clonidine (CLON) and ST-91] were determined. The antagonist potency of atipamezole (ATI), idazoxan (IDAZ), yohimbine(More)
Recent studies have suggested oxytocin's therapeutic effects on deficits in social communication and interaction in autism spectrum disorder through improvement of emotion recognition with direct emotional cues, such as facial expression and voice prosody. Although difficulty in understanding of others' social emotions and beliefs under conditions without(More)
The neuropeptide oxytocin may be an effective therapeutic strategy for the currently untreatable social and communication deficits associated with autism. Our recent paper reported that oxytocin mitigated autistic behavioral deficits through the restoration of activity in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), as demonstrated with functional magnetic(More)
Atypical trajectory of brain growth in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) has been recognized as a potential etiology of an atypical course of behavioral development. Numerous neuroimaging studies have focused on childhood to investigate atypical age-related change of brain structure and function, because it is a period of neuron and synapse maturation.(More)
Recent studies have suggested an important role for Broca's region and its right hemisphere counterpart in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, owing to its roles in language and interpersonal information processing. Broca's region consists of the pars opercularis (PO) and the pars triangularis (PT). Neuroimaging studies have suggested that they have(More)
Changes in brain pathology as schizophrenia progresses have been repeatedly suggested by previous studies. Meta-analyses of previous proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) studies at each clinical stage of schizophrenia indicate that the abnormalities of N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and glutamatergic metabolites change progressively. However, to our(More)