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Clinical diagnosis and severity of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are determined by trained clinicians based on clinical evaluations of observed behaviors. As such, this approach is inevitably dependent on the expertise and subjective assessment of those administering the clinical evaluations. There is a need to identify objective biological markers(More)
Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) tend to make inadequate social judgments, particularly when the nonverbal and verbal emotional expressions of other people are incongruent. Although previous behavioral studies have suggested that ASD individuals have difficulty in using nonverbal cues when presented with incongruent verbal-nonverbal(More)
Changes in brain pathology as schizophrenia progresses have been repeatedly suggested by previous studies. Meta-analyses of previous proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS) studies at each clinical stage of schizophrenia indicate that the abnormalities of N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and glutamatergic metabolites change progressively. However, to our(More)
IMPORTANCE Sociocommunicational deficits make it difficult for individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) to understand communication content with conflicting verbal and nonverbal information. Despite growing prospects for oxytocin as a therapeutic agent for ASD, no direct neurobiological evidence exists for oxytocin's beneficial effects on this core(More)
Recent studies have suggested oxytocin's therapeutic effects on deficits in social communication and interaction in autism spectrum disorder through improvement of emotion recognition with direct emotional cues, such as facial expression and voice prosody. Although difficulty in understanding of others' social emotions and beliefs under conditions without(More)
Recent studies have suggested an important role for Broca's region and its right hemisphere counterpart in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, owing to its roles in language and interpersonal information processing. Broca's region consists of the pars opercularis (PO) and the pars triangularis (PT). Neuroimaging studies have suggested that they have(More)
INTRODUCTION The study was conducted to evaluate simultaneously gray matter changes and white matter changes in patients with schizophrenia. METHODS Cortical thickness, gray matter volume, and white matter anisotropy and diffusivity changes in schizophrenic patients (n = 21) were assessed relative to age-, gender-, and parental socioeconomic(More)
BACKGROUND Symptomatic and functional outcomes in schizophrenia are associated with the duration of untreated psychosis. However, no candidate biomarkers have been adopted in clinical settings. Multichannel near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), which can easily and noninvasively measure hemodynamics over the prefrontal cortex, is a candidate instrument for(More)
Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) studies have reported that prefrontal hemodynamic dysfunction during executive function tasks may be a promising biomarker of psychiatric disorders, because its portability and noninvasiveness allow easy measurements in clinical settings. Here, we investigated the degree to which prefrontal NIRS signals are genetically(More)
Social judgments often require resolution of incongruity in communication contents. Although previous studies revealed that such conflict resolution recruits brain regions including the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and posterior inferior frontal gyrus (pIFG), functional relationships and networks among these regions remain unclear. In this functional(More)