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A great number of novel and unique chemical structures of archaeal polar lipids have been reported. Since 1993, when those lipids were reviewed in several review articles, a variety of core lipids and lipids with unique polar groups have been reported successively. We summarize new lipid structures from archaea elucidated after 1993. In addition to lipids(More)
This review deals with the in vitro biosynthesis of the characteristics of polar lipids in archaea along with preceding in vivo studies. Isoprenoid chains are synthesized through the classical mevalonate pathway, as in eucarya, with minor modifications in some archaeal species. Most enzymes involved in the pathway have been identified enzymatically and/or(More)
Cellular membrane lipids, of which phospholipids are the major constituents, form one of the characteristic features that distinguish Archaea from other organisms. In this study, we focused on the steps in archaeal phospholipid synthetic pathways that generate polar lipids such as archaetidylserine, archaetidylglycerol, and archaetidylinositol. Only(More)
CDP-2,3-di-O-geranylgeranyl-sn-glycerol:L-serine O-archaetidyltransferase (archaetidylserine synthase) activity in cell extracts of Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus cells was characterized. The enzyme catalyzed the formation of unsaturated archaetidylserine from CDP-unsaturated archaeol and L-serine. The identity of the reaction products was confirmed(More)
One of the most puzzling results from the complete genome sequence of the methanogenic archaeon Methanococcus jannaschii was that the organism may have only one DNA polymerase gene. This is because no other DNA polymerase-like open reading frames (ORFs) were found besides one ORF having the typical alpha-like DNA polymerase (family B). Recently, we(More)
Archaeoglobus (A.) fulgidus is a hyperthermophilic, anaerobic, sulfate-reducing archaeon. Although the polar lipid composition of various archaea has been reported, no information has been available for A. fulgidus polar lipids. The present paper reports the results of lipid component parts analysis applied to the archaeon. Lipid component parts analysis is(More)
sn-Glycerol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase is responsible for the formation of the sn-glycerol-1-phosphate backbone of archaeal lipids. [4-3H]NADH that had 3H at the R side was produced from [4-3H]NAD and glucose with glucose dehydrogenase (a pro-S type enzyme). The 3H of this [4-3H]NADH was transferred to dihydroxyacetonephosphate during the(More)
Different enantiomeric isomers, sn-glycerol-1-phosphate and sn-glycerol-3-phosphate, are used as the glycerophosphate backbones of phospholipids in the cellular membranes of Archaea and the remaining two kingdoms, respectively. In Archaea, sn-glycerol-1-phosphate dehydrogenase is involved in the generation of sn-glycerol-1-phosphate, while(More)
The results of two objective and quantitative, computer-assisted analyses of the lipid component parts distribution pattern among various archaeal organisms belonging to Euryarchaeota are reported. One was a cluster analysis and the other a selection of unique combinations of lipid component parts found exclusively in a given taxon. The cluster analysis(More)