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Thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) is an α-arrestin family protein that is induced in response to glucose elevation. It has been shown to provide a negative feedback loop to regulate glucose uptake into cells, though the biochemical mechanism of action has been obscure. Here, we report that TXNIP suppresses glucose uptake directly, by binding to the(More)
The PI3K-AKT, mTOR-p70S6 kinase and AMPK pathways play distinct and critical roles in metabolic regulation. Each pathway is necessary for leptin's anorexigenic effects in the hypothalamus. Here we show that these pathways converge in an integrated phosphorylation cascade to mediate leptin action in the hypothalamus. We identify serine(491) on α2AMPK as the(More)
Although adequate nutrition is essential for optimal neural activity and survival, mild energy restriction may improve cognition and prolong longevity. Energy status is monitored by the cellular AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) system, whereas leptin regulates total energy balance. We investigated the roles of AMPK and leptin in cognition and survival(More)
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a metabolic master switch regulating glucose and lipid metabolism. Recently, AMPK has been implicated in the control of adipose tissue content. Yet, the nature of this action is controversial. We examined the effect on F442a adipocytes of the AMPK activator-AICAR. Activation of AMPK induced dose-dependent apoptotic(More)
Diabetic neuropathy (DN) is a common complication of diabetes mellitus resulting in cognitive dysfunction and synaptic plasticity impairment. Hyperglycemia plays a critical role in the development and progression of DN, through a number of mechanisms including increased oxidative stress. Cannabinoids are a diverse family of compounds which can act as(More)
Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a neuropsychiatric disorder of complex pathogenesis caused by acute or chronic liver failure. We studied the etiology of cerebral dysfunction in a murine model of HE induced by either bile duct ligation or thioacetamide administration. We report that stimulation of cerebral AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a major(More)
Endocannabinoids function as neurotransmitters and neuromodulators in the central nervous system via specific receptors and apparently have a neuroprotective role. We assumed that the endocannabinoid system could be involved in the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy (HE), a neuropsychiatric syndrome due to liver disease. We used a mouse model of a(More)
The biological effects of bilirubin, still poorly understood, are concentration-dependent ranging from cell protection to toxicity. Here we present data that at high nontoxic physiological concentrations, bilirubin inhibits growth of proliferating human coronary artery smooth muscle cells by three events. It impairs the activation of Raf/ERK/MAPK pathway(More)
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an energy-sensing enzyme whose activity is inhibited in settings of insulin resistance. Exposure to a high glucose concentration has recently been shown to increase phosphorylation of AMPK at Ser(485/491) of its α1/α2 subunit; however, the mechanism by which it does so is not known. Diacylglycerol (DAG), which is also(More)
In recent years, terahertz radiation sources are increasingly being exploited in military and civil applications. However, only a few studies have so far been conducted to examine the biological effects associated with terahertz radiation. In this study, we evaluated the cellular response of mesenchymal mouse stem cells exposed to THz radiation. We apply(More)