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To clarify the extensibility of thin actin and thick myosin filaments in muscle, we examined the spacings of actin and myosin filament-based reflections in x-ray diffraction patterns at high resolution during isometric contraction of frog skeletal muscles and steady lengthening of the active muscles using synchrotron radiation as an intense x-ray source and(More)
The Plutella xylostella granulovirus (PxGV) genome DNA was sequenced and the predicted open reading frames (ORFs) were compared to genes of the first-sequenced GV, Xestia c-nigrum GV (XcGV), and those from other baculoviruses and organisms. PxGV DNA has a size of 100,999 bp with a G + C content of 40.7%. The analysis predicted 120 ORFs with a size of 150(More)
The involvement of genetic polymorphism at the alcohol dehydrogenase 2 (ADH2) and aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) loci in determining blood acetaldehyde levels and the rate of ethanol elimination after ethanol intake was investigated. Sixty-eight healthy subjects ingested 0.4 g of ethanol per kg of body weight over 10 min. Blood acetaldehyde levels(More)
Hydrogen production by thermophilic anaerobic microflora enriched from sludge compost was studied by using an artificial medium containing cellulose powder. Hydrogen gas was evolved with the formation of acetate, ethanol, and butyrate by decomposition of the cellulose powder. The hydrogen production yield was 2.0 mol/mol-hexose by either batch or chemostat(More)
Glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) [EC 4.1.1.15] was purified from a cell-free extract of Lactobacillus brevis IFO 12005 by chromatographies on Sephadex G-100, DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B, and Mono Q. About 9 mg of purified GAD was obtained from 90.2 g of wet cells. The purified preparation showed a single protein band on SDS-PAGE. The molecular weights of purified GAD(More)
In this study, the microbial community succession in a thermophilic methanogenic bioreactor under deteriorative and stable conditions that were induced by acidification and neutralization, respectively, was investigated using PCR-mediated single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) based on the 16S rRNA gene, quantitative PCR, and fluorescence in situ(More)
The class Thermoplasmata harbors huge uncultured archaeal lineages at the order level, so-called Groups E2 and E3. A novel archaeon Kjm51a affiliated with Group E2 was enriched from anaerobic sludge in the present study. Clone library analysis of the archaeal 16S rRNA and mcrA genes confirmed a unique archaeal population in the enrichment culture. The 16S(More)
The phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) isozyme involved in C4 photosynthesis is known to undergo reversible regulatory phosphorylation under illuminated conditions, thereby decreasing the enzyme's sensitivity to its feedback inhibitor, L-malate. For the direct assay of this phosphorylation in intact maize leaves, phosphorylation state-specific(More)
Osteoprotegerin (OPG), a soluble decoy receptor for receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL)/osteoclast differentiation factor, inhibits both differentiation and function of osteoclasts. We previously reported that OPG-deficient mice exhibited severe osteoporosis caused by enhanced osteoclastic bone resorption. In the present study,(More)