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BACKGROUND Rituximab could be an effective treatment for childhood-onset, complicated, frequently relapsing nephrotic syndrome (FRNS) and steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome (SDNS). We investigated the efficacy and safety of rituximab in patients with high disease activity. METHODS We did a multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial(More)
BACKGROUND Cyclosporine A (CsA) has been widely used in children with steroid dependent and steroid resistant nephrotic syndrome (NS) because of its efficacy in relieving these patients from systemic side effects of steroids. However, its long term use is controversial, since chronic CsA induced nephropathy (CsAN) may develop in a considerable number of(More)
Raw vegetables cut for salad, cooked salad, cooked rice, boiled noodles, bean curd, and cooked Japanese foods were purchased in 27 retail shops in Tokyo. Intact vegetables before being processed and ready-to-eat fresh salad products were obtained from two food factories located in the suburbs of Tokyo. Two hundred thirty-eight retail samples, 137 samples of(More)
BACKGROUND Recent advancements in perinatal and neonatal care have increased the survival of preterm infants with lower birth weight and very low birth weight (VLBW; < 1,500 g) infants. Such infants are exposed to a higher risk of renal insufficiency in later life due to congenitally fewer nephrons; however, urinalysis in order to detect renal insufficiency(More)
The therapeutic benefits of Cyclosporine A (CsA) are often limited by the chronic nephrotoxicity of its long-term use. Chronic nephrotoxicity is manifested by renal function impairment and progressive histopathological kidney lesions characterized by tubular vacuolization, tubular necrosis, interstitial fibrosis, and afferent arteriolopathy. This study(More)
Rituximab (RTX) has been successfully used as a rescue therapy in children with steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome (SDNS). However, little is known regarding maintenance therapy after a successful response to RTX in such patients. The efficacy and safety of a single RTX infusion (375 mg/m(2)) were assessed in ten patients who had persistent SDNS(More)
In order to clarify the mechanism of unusual renal tubular dysfunction seen in a child with Shiga toxin (Stx)-mediated hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), we studied the renal biopsy specimens for Stx binding and apoptosis of renal tubular cells. A 7-year-old boy with Stx-2-mediated HUS demonstrated extensive renal tubular damage characterized by nonoliguric(More)
Cyclosporine A (CsA) has relieved children with steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome (NS) from steroid toxicity. However, most patients frequently relapse again when CsA is withdrawn, resulting in the development of CsA nephropathy for its long-term use. In order to assess the efficacy of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) therapy, we prospectively analyzed 12(More)
1. Persistent hypoglycaemia was experimentally induced by insulin infusion to improve understanding of the regulatory mechanisms of blood glucose concentrations specific to chickens. 2. An osmotic minipump containing bovine insulin was implanted to deliver insulin in vivo at a constant rate (11.25 to 45 U/kg BW/d) for 5 d in 4-week-old broiler chickens(More)
We studied the insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene in 78 patients with primary vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), and examined renal function by dimercaptosuccinate (DMSA) renoscintigraphy and diethylenetriamine-penta-acetic acid (DTPA) renogram in each genotype. Patients were classified into three genotypes(More)