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Antifreeze proteins are structurally diverse polypeptides that have thermal hysteresis activity and have been discovered in many cold-adapted organisms. Of these, fungal antifreeze protein has been purified and partially characterized only in a species of psychrophilic basidiomycete, Typhula ishikariensis. Here we report a new fungal antifreeze protein from(More)
Decreased affinity of an antibody for a mutated epitope in an antigen can be enhanced and reversed by mutations in certain antibody residues. Here we describe the crystal structures of (a) the complex between a naturally mutated proteinaceous antigen and an antibody that was mutated and selected in vitro, and (b) the complex between the normal antigen and(More)
Cryopreservation methods using liquid nitrogen (LN(2)) for gametes and embryos are prevalent in mammalian artificial reproduction. However, the pregnancy rate from frozen embryos has not improved over the past two decades because freeze-thawing causes significant damage. The strict regulation of transportation of LN(2) containers by airlines also limits(More)
We found that Notched-fin eelpout, which lives off the north east coast of Japan, expresses an antifreeze protein (AFP). The liver of this fish contains DNAs that encode at least 13 type III AFP isoforms (denoted nfeAFPs). The primary sequences of the nfeAFP isoforms were categorized into SP- and QAE-sephadex binding groups, and the latter were further(More)
We recently found that longsnout poacher (Brachyosis rostratus) produces a Ca(2+)-independent type II antifreeze protein (lpAFP) and succeeded in expressing recombinant lpAFP using Phichia pastoris. Here, we report, for the first time, the X-ray crystal structure of lpAFP at 1.34 A resolution. The lpAFP structure displayed a relatively planar surface, which(More)
Type III antifreeze protein is naturally expressed as a mixture of sulfopropyl-Sephadex (SP) and quaternary aminoethyl-Sephadex (QAE)-binding isoforms, whose sequence identity is approximately 55%. We studied the ice-binding properties of a SP isoform (nfeAFP6) and the differences from those of a QAE isoform (nfeAFP8); both of these isoforms have been(More)
We generated a recombinant 96-residue polypeptide corresponding to a sequence Tyr176-Gly273 of ice nucleation protein from Pseudomonas syringae (denoted INP96). INP96 exhibited an ability to shape an ice crystal, whose morphology is highly similar to the hexagonal-bipyramid generally identified for antifreeze protein. INP96 also showed a non-linear,(More)
Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) can bind to the surface of ice crystals and have also been suggested to protect cells from hypothermic damage. The present study reports that type III AFPs from notched-fin eelpout, Zoarces elongatus Kner, can protect cells during hypothermic storage. This fish naturally expresses at least 13 isoforms of type III AFP (denoted(More)
It is sometimes desirable to preserve mammalian cells by hypothermia rather than freezing during short term transplantation. Here we found an ability of hypothermic (+4°C) preservation of fish antifreeze protein (AFP) against rat insulinoma cells denoted as RIN-5F. The preservation ability was compared between type I-III AFPs and antifreeze glycoprotein(More)
Type III antifreeze proteins (AFPs) can be sub-divided into three classes of isoforms. SP and QAE2 isoforms can slow, but not stop, the growth of ice crystals by binding to pyramidal ice planes. The other class (QAE1) binds both pyramidal and primary prism planes and is able to halt the growth of ice. Here we describe the conversion of a QAE2 isoform into a(More)