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Neurons form distinctive axonal and dendritic compartments that are important for directional signaling, but the mechanisms that discriminate between axons and dendrites remain elusive. Previous studies have demonstrated that the kinesin-1 motor domain is capable of distinguishing the axon from dendrites. Here we found that the amino acid substitutions in(More)
A mechanism that triggers neuronal apoptosis has been characterized. We report that the cell cycle-regulated protein kinase Cdc2 is expressed in postmitotic granule neurons of the developing rat cerebellum and that Cdc2 mediates apoptosis of cerebellar granule neurons upon the suppression of neuronal activity. Cdc2 catalyzes the phosphorylation of the(More)
The anaphase-promoting complex (APC) is highly expressed in postmitotic neurons, but its function in the nervous system was previously unknown. We report that the inhibition of Cdh1-APC in primary neurons specifically enhanced axonal growth. Cdh1 knockdown in cerebellar slice overlay assays and in the developing rat cerebellum in vivo revealed(More)
Activation of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) has been linked to cell death of postmitotic neurons in brain development and disease. We found that Cdk1 phosphorylated the transcription factor FOXO1 at Ser249 in vitro and in vivo. The phosphorylation of FOXO1 at Ser249 disrupted FOXO1 binding with 14-3-3 proteins and thereby promoted the nuclear(More)
Arsenic (As) is environmentally ubiquitous and an epidemiologically significant chemical related to certain human cancers. Dimethylarsinic acid (cacodylic acid; DMA) is one of the major methylated metabolites of ingested arsenicals in most mammals. To evaluate the effects of DMA on chemical carcinogenesis, we conducted a multiorgan bioassay in rats given(More)
Long-term in vivo carcinogenicity tests of potassium bromate (KBrO3), sodium hypochlorite (NaClO), and sodium chlorite (NaClO2) have been conducted in Japan from 1977 to 1985. In these investigations, groups of approximately 50 male and 50 female F344 rats or B6C3F1 mice were given solutions of the compounds as their drinking water ad libitum at two dose(More)
The elaboration of dendrites is fundamental to the establishment of neuronal polarity and connectivity, but the mechanisms that underlie dendritic morphogenesis are poorly understood. We found that the genetic knockdown of the transcription factor NeuroD in primary granule neurons including in organotypic cerebellar slices profoundly impaired the generation(More)
The development and aging of four brain midline structures--the pituitary gland, pons, cerebellar vermis, and corpus callosum--were studied. The dimensions and area of these structures were measured by means of midsagittal magnetic resonance imaging. The study group consisted of 94 patients newborn to 15 years old and 49 patients and seven volunteers 16-60(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the relationship between cerebral cortical function and white matter myelination in the visual pathway in the evaluation of normal brain development. METHODS The authors performed quantitative analysis of white matter myelination detected with conventional T1-weighted spin echo (SE) MRI and brain functional MRI (fMRI) using(More)
Neuronal apoptosis plays a critical role in the normal development of the mammalian brain and is thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of several neurologic disorders. However, the intracellular mechanisms underlying apoptosis of neurons remain incompletely understood. In the present study, we characterized a cell-cycle-based mechanism by which neuronal(More)