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Bacillus subtilis is the best-characterized member of the Gram-positive bacteria. Its genome of 4,214,810 base pairs comprises 4,100 protein-coding genes. Of these protein-coding genes, 53% are represented once, while a quarter of the genome corresponds to several gene families that have been greatly expanded by gene duplication, the largest family(More)
Flowering in Arabidopsis is promoted via several interacting pathways. A photoperiod-dependent pathway relays signals from photoreceptors to a transcription factor gene, CONSTANS (CO), which activates downstream meristem identity genes such as LEAFY (LFY). FT, together with LFY, promotes flowering and is positively regulated by CO. Loss of FT causes delay(More)
Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is an X-linked motor neuronopathy caused by the expansion of an unstable CAG repeat in the coding region of the androgen receptor (AR) gene. To study AR protein expression in normal and SBMA individuals, we used several antibodies that recognize AR protein, and analyzed neural and nonneural tissues by(More)
Many theories of cerebellar motor learning propose that complex spikes (CS) provide essential error signals for learning and modulate parallel fiber inputs that generate simple spikes (SS). These theories, however, do not satisfactorily specify what modality is represented by CS or how information is conveyed by the ultra-low CS firing rate (1 Hz). To(More)
We present an analysis of atmospheric neutrino data from a 33.0 kiloton-year (535-day) exposure of the Super{Kamiokande detector. The data exhibit a zenith angle dependent decit of muon neutrinos which is inconsistent with expectations based on calculations of the atmospheric neutrino ux. Experimental biases and uncertainties in the prediction of neutrino(More)
This is the first in a series of reports on the neuroanatomic organization and connectivity of the macaque monkey retrosplenial cortex, i.e., areas 29 and 30. To elucidate the topographic configuration of the retrosplenial cortex and adjacent structures, we have made three-dimensional computer reconstructions of the posterior cingulate region that includes(More)
Studies in both decerebrate, and intact cats have already established the presence of specific areas in the brainstem that subserve control of posture and locomotion. They are the subthalamic locomotor region (SLR) in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA), the mesencephalic locomotor region (MLR) in the posterior midbrain, the dorsal tegmental field (DTF) and(More)
Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy is an X-linked motor neuronopathy caused by the expansion of an unstable CAG repeat in the coding region of the androgen receptor (AR) gene. Nuclear inclusions of the mutant AR protein have been shown to occur in the spinal motor neurons of spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (Li M, Kobayashi Y, Merry D, Tanaka F, Doyu M,(More)
Pontine carbachol injection sites critically related to the induction of postural atonia were explored in reflexively standing acute decerebrate cats. Carbachol (4.0 micrograms/0.25 microliter) and atropine (2.0 micrograms/0.25 microliter) were focally injected into the pontomedullary reticular formation, and their effects on hindlimb extensor muscle tone(More)
We studied the effects of horizontal smooth pursuit on the ocular responses to brief vertical perturbations of textured backgrounds in humans. When the subject was fixating on a stationary target, a brief vertical perturbation of the background elicited a small tracking response. When the subject was pursuing a target moving horizontally, the same(More)