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The specificity of the hemodynamic response function (HRF) is determined spatially by the vascular architecture and temporally by the evolution of hemodynamic changes. The stimulus duration has additional influence on the spatiotemporal evolution of the HRF, as brief stimuli elicit responses that engage only the local vasculature, whereas long stimuli lead(More)
High field (> or =7 T) MRI studies based on signal phase have been used to improve visualization of the fine structure of the brain, most notably the major white matter fiber bundles, the gray-white matter subdivision, and the laminar cortical architecture. The observed contrast has been attributed in part to local variations in magnetic susceptibility(More)
It has been generally suggested that chewing produces an enhancing effect on cognitive performance-related aspects of memory by the test battery. Furthermore, recent studies have shown that chewing is associated with activation of various brain regions, including the prefrontal cortex. However, little is known about the relation between cognitive(More)
The spatiotemporal characteristics of the hemodynamic response to increased neural activity were investigated at the level of individual intracortical vessels using BOLD-fMRI in a well-established rodent model of somatosensory stimulation at 11.7 T. Functional maps of the rat barrel cortex were obtained at 150 × 150 × 500 μm spatial resolution every 200 ms.(More)
Functional neuroimaging in animal models is essential for understanding the principles of neurovascular coupling and the physiological basis of fMRI signals that are widely used to study sensory and cognitive processing in the human brain. While hemodynamic responses to sensory stimuli have been characterized in humans, animal studies are able to combine(More)
In recent years, chewing has been discussed as producing effects of maintaining and sustaining cognitive performance. We have reported that chewing may improve or recover the process of working memory; however, the mechanisms underlying these phenomena are still to be elucidated. We investigated the effect of chewing on aspects of attention and cognitive(More)
Several animal studies have demonstrated functional roles of dopamine (DA) D1 and D2 receptors in amygdala activity. However, the contribution of DA D1 and D2 receptors to amygdala response induced by affective stimuli in human is unknown. To investigate the contribution of DA receptor subtypes to amygdala reactivity in human, we conducted a multimodal in(More)
Positron emission tomography (PET) with (15)O tracers provides essential information in patients with cerebral vascular disorders, such as cerebral blood flow (CBF), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF), and metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO(2)). However, most of techniques require an additional C(15)O scan for compensating cerebral blood volume (CBV). We aimed to(More)
The Kana Pick-out Test (KPT), which uses Kana or Japanese symbols that represent syllables, requires parallel processing of discrete (pick-out) and continuous (reading) dual tasks. As a dual task, the KPT is thought to test working memory and executive function, particularly in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), and is widely used in Japan as a clinical screen(More)
Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in eight healthy human subjects, the present study measured blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signals during clenching in a malocclusion model, using a custom-made splint that forced the mandible to a retrusive position and a splint of no modification for control, and compared the results to the BOLD(More)