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Signaling molecules such as Activin, Sonic hedgehog, Nodal, Lefty, and Vg1 have been found to be involved in determination of left-right (L-R) asymmetry in the chick, mouse, or frog. However, a common signaling pathway has not yet been identified in vertebrates. We report that Pitx2, a bicoid-type homeobox gene expressed asymmetrically in the left lateral(More)
It has been reported that members of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family can induce additional limb formation in the flank of chick embryos. The phenotype of the ectopic limb depends on the somite level at which it forms: limbs in the anterior flank resemble wings, whereas those in the posterior flank resemble legs. Ectopic limbs located in the(More)
Mammalian lefty and zebrafish antivin, highly related to lefty, are shown to be expressed asymmetrically and involved in the specification of the left body side of early embryos. We isolated a chick homologue of the antivin/lefty1 cDNA and studied its expression pattern during early chick development. We found that antivin/lefty1 is expressed asymmetrically(More)
Revealing reinforcing mechanisms in associative learning is important for elucidation of brain mechanisms of behavior. In mammals, dopamine neurons are thought to mediate both appetitive and aversive reinforcement signals. Studies using transgenic fruit-flies suggested that dopamine neurons mediate both appetitive and aversive reinforcements, through the(More)
Cricket nymphs have the remarkable ability to regenerate a functional leg following amputation, indicating that the regenerating blastemal cells contain information for leg morphology. However, the molecular mechanisms that underlie regeneration of leg patterns remain poorly understood. Here, we analyzed phenotypes of the tibia and tarsus (three tarsomeres)(More)
In insect species that undergo long germ segmentation, such as Drosophila, all segments are specified simultaneously at the early blastoderm stage. As embryogenesis progresses, the expression boundaries of Hox genes are established by repression of gap genes, which is subsequently replaced by Polycomb group (PcG) silencing. At present, however, it is not(More)
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