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The photoreceptors in the compound eye of a cabbage butterfly, Pieris rapae, were examined by conventional and intracellular-labeling electron microscopy by the use of the cobalt(III)-lysine complex as an ionized marker. Five types of spectral sensitivity were recorded intracellularly in electrophysiological experiments. They peaked at about 340, 380, 480,(More)
The fine structure of an ommatidium of a skipper butterfly, Parnara guttata, has been studied using the electron microscope. Each ommatidium has nine retinula cells, which were classified into three groups: two distal, six medial and one basal retinula cells. The rhabdomeres of the distal retinula cells are localized in the distal part of the rhabdom, while(More)
Antennal hygroreceptors of the honey bee, Apis mellifera L., have been investigated electrophysiologically and the sensillum containing these receptors with SEM. Moist and dry hygroreceptors have been identified along with a thermal receptor in a specialized coeloconic sensillum. This sensillum comprises a cuticular, shallow depression (diameter; 4 μ)(More)
The molecular basis of the circadian clock is an autoregulatory feedback loop in which the PAS domain-containing protein PERIOD periodically inhibits its own transcription. In the present study on PERIOD of the silk moth Bombyx mori, we have cloned two distinct period mRNA homologues with different PAS domain sequences either with or without the(More)
The compound eyes of two species of damsel-flies, Ishunura senegalensis and Cersion calamorum, were examined by electron microscopy. Each ommatidium is composed of eight retinula cells which are semistratified in the receptor layer. The retinula cells are divided into four types from the difference of levels in the rhabdom formation; one distal large cell(More)
Electron microscopical studies were made on the fine structure of the rhabdomeric microvilli of the compound eyes of seven species of arthropods (Procambarus, Neocaridina, Caridina, Potamon, Artemia, Diestrammena, Drosophila) raised in complete darkness for 1–8 months or for successive generations, using various fixation techniques. The rhabdomeric(More)
Pigment-dispersing factor (PDF), an 18-amino acid neuropeptide, is a principal circadian neuromodulator functioning downstream of the insect brain's circadian clock, modulating daily rhythms of locomotor activity. Recently, we found that PDF precursors of the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus comprise a nuclear localization signal (NLS). Moreover, the nuclear(More)
Pigment-dispersing factor (PDF), an 18-amino acid neuropeptide, is a principal circadian neurotransmitter for the circadian rhythms of the locomotor activity in flies. Recently, two completely different types of PDF precursor were clarified; that of the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus and that of the last-summer cicada Meimuna opalifera. The G. bimaculatus PDF(More)
Papilio butterflies depend highly on visual information in their flower-foraging behavior. The retina of Papilio xuthus has been studied well, whereas the visual system in the brain is poorly understood. By investigating outputs from the optic lobe to the central brain, we found that the mushroom body of P. xuthus receives prominent direct inputs from the(More)
Pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) was recently reported to be a principal circadian neuromodulator involved in transmitting circadian rhythms of daily locomotion in insects. In Drosophila, PDF functions in some of the neurons expressing the clock genes period, timeless, Clock, and cycle, and those clock genes in turn regulate pdf gene expression. In the(More)