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BACKGROUND We hypothesized that two independent wavelengths of near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent light could be used to identify bile ducts and hepatic arteries simultaneously, and intraoperatively. MATERIALS AND METHODS Three different combinations of 700 and 800 nm fluorescent contrast agents specific for bile ducts and arteries were injected into N = 10(More)
OBJECTIVE Chylothorax resulting from thoracic duct damage is often difficult to identify and repair. We hypothesized that near-infrared fluorescent light could provide sensitive, real-time, high-resolution intraoperative imaging of thoracic duct anatomy and function. METHODS In 16 rats, 4 potential near-infrared fluorescent lymphatic tracers were compared(More)
Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping in breast cancer requires optimized imaging systems and lymphatic tracers. A small, portable version of the FLARE imaging system, termed Mini-FLARE, was developed for capturing color video and two semi-independent channels of NIR fluorescence (700 and 800 nm) in real time. Initial(More)
Nano-size particles show promise for pulmonary drug delivery, yet their behavior after deposition in the lung remains poorly understood. In this study, a series of near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent nanoparticles were systematically varied in chemical composition, shape, size and surface charge, and their biodistribution and elimination were quantified in rat(More)
Sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping in colorectal cancer may have prognostic and therapeutic significance; however, currently available techniques are not optimal. We hypothesized that the combination of invisible near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent light and ex vivo injection could solve remaining problems of SLN mapping in colorectal cancer. The FLARE imaging(More)
Nerve damage is the major morbidity of many surgeries, resulting in chronic pain, loss of function, or both. The sparing of nerves during surgical procedures is a vexing problem because surrounding tissue often obscures them. To date, systemically administered nerve-highlighting contrast agents that can be used for nerve-sparing image-guided surgery have(More)
The signal-to-background ratio (SBR) is the key determinant of sensitivity, detectability and linearity in optical imaging. As signal strength is often constrained by fundamental limits, background reduction becomes an important approach for improving the SBR. We recently reported that a zwitterionic near-infrared (NIR) fluorophore, ZW800-1, exhibits low(More)
Oxygenation measurements are widely used in patient care. However, most clinically available instruments currently consist of contact probes that only provide global monitoring of the patient (e.g., pulse oximetry probes) or local monitoring of small areas (e.g., spectroscopy-based probes). Visualization of oxygenation over large areas of tissue, without a(More)
Neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas, such as insulinoma, are difficult to localize, and complete resection is essential for cure. Our hypothesis is that a near-infrared (NIR) fluorophore exhibiting uptake in insulinoma could provide high-sensitivity detection intraoperatively. The optical properties of methylene blue (MB) were measured in vitro in 100%(More)