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Glucosidase II (Glc'ase II) is a glycan-processing enzyme that trims two alpha1,3-linked Glc residues in succession from the glycoprotein oligosaccharide Glc2Man9GlcNAc2 to give Glc1Man9GlcNAc2 and Man9GlcNAc2 in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Monoglucosylated glycans, such as Glc1-Man9GlcNAc2, generated by this process play a key role in glycoprotein(More)
Calreticulin is a Ca(2+)-binding molecular chaperone of the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum. Calreticulin has been shown to be essential for cardiac and neural development in mice, but the mechanism by which it functions in cell differentiation is not fully understood. To examine the role of calreticulin in cardiac differentiation, the calreticulin gene(More)
Recent study has shown that nuclear glutathione S-transferase (GST) pi accumulates in cancer cells resistant to doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX) and may function to prevent nuclear DNA damage caused by DOX (Goto et al., FASEB J., 15, 2702 - 2714 (2001)). It is not clear if the amount of nuclear GSTpi increases in response to other anti-cancer drugs and if(More)
Glutaredoxin (GRX) is a small dithiol protein involved in various cellular functions, including the redox regulation of certain enzyme activities. GRX functions via a disulfide exchange reaction by utilizing the active site Cys-Pro-Tyr-Cys. Here we demonstrated that overexpression of GRX protected cells from hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced apoptosis by(More)
The GSH/glutaredoxin (GRX) system is involved in the redox regulation of certain enzyme activities, and this system protects cells from H2O2-induced apoptosis by regulating the redox state of Akt (Murata, H., Ihara, Y., Nakamura, H., Yodoi, J., Sumikawa, K., and Kondo, T. (2003) J. Biol. Chem. 278, 50226-50233). Estrogens, such as 17beta-estradiol (E2),(More)
The folding of glycoproteins is primarily mediated by a quality control system in the ER, in which UDP-Glc:glycoprotein glucosyltransferase (UGGT) serves as a "folding sensor". In this system, client glycoproteins are delivered to UGGT after the trimming of their innermost glucose residue by glucosidase II, which releases them from the lectin chaperones(More)
We investigated ubiquitin immunoreactivity in the post-ischemic gerbil hippocampus using a panel of ubiquitin antibodies. Immunostaining for ubiquitin in the hippocampus was strongly dependent on the antibodies used. With rabbit polyclonal antibody U-5379, immunoreactivity disappeared from the hippocampus in the early reperfusion period and reappeared in(More)
BACKGROUND Oxidative stress plays a role in the development of chronic peripheral arterial disease (PAD) because under these conditions redox regulation is impaired, inducing the S-glutathionylation of proteins. A method of estimating the levels of S-glutathionylated proteins has been developed using biotinylated glutathione S-transferase, which allows the(More)
The vesicular integral protein of 36 kDa (VIP36) is an intracellular animal lectin that acts as a putative cargo receptor, which recycles between the Golgi and the endoplasmic reticulum. Although it is known that VIP36 interacts with glycoproteins carrying high mannose-type oligosaccharides, detailed analyses of the sugar-binding specificity that(More)