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Abnormalities during brain development are thought to cause psychiatric illness and other neurodevelopmental disorders. However, developmental processes such as neurogenesis continue in restricted brain regions of adults, and disruptions of these processes could contribute to the phenotypes of neurodevelopmental disorders. As previously reported, we show(More)
There is now compelling evidence that the allocation of memory to specific neurons (neuronal allocation) and synapses (synaptic allocation) in a neurocircuit is not random and that instead specific mechanisms, such as increases in neuronal excitability and synaptic tagging and capture, determine the exact sites where memories are stored. We propose an(More)
Recent studies suggest that a shared neural ensemble may link distinct memories encoded close in time. According to the memory allocation hypothesis, learning triggers a temporary increase in neuronal excitability that biases the representation of a subsequent memory to the neuronal ensemble encoding the first memory, such that recall of one memory(More)
BACKGROUND Amyloid-beta peptide species ending at positions 40 and 42 (Abeta40, Abeta42) are generated by the proteolytic processing of the Alzheimer's amyloid precursor protein (APP). Abeta peptides accumulate in the brain early in the course of Alzheimer's disease (AD), especially Abeta42. The cytoplasmic domain of APP regulates intracellular trafficking(More)
In Noonan syndrome (NS) 30-50% of subjects show cognitive deficits of unknown etiology and with no known treatment. Here, we report that knock-in mice expressing either of two NS-associated mutations in Ptpn11, which encodes the nonreceptor protein tyrosine phosphatase Shp2, show hippocampal-dependent impairments in spatial learning and deficits in(More)
The habenular complex linking forebrain and midbrain structures is subdivided into the medial (mHb) and the lateral nuclei (lHb). The mHb is characterized by the expression of specific nicotinic acetylcholine receptor isoforms and the release of acetylcholine to the interpeduncular nucleus (IPN), the sole output region of the mHb. The specific function of(More)
X11 and X11-like proteins (X11L) are neuronal adaptor proteins whose association to the cytoplasmic domain of amyloid beta-protein precursor (APP) suppresses the generation of amyloid beta-protein (Abeta) implicated in Alzheimer disease pathogenesis. The amyloidogenic, but not amyloidolytic, metabolism of APP was selectively increased in the brain of mutant(More)
The molecular and cellular mechanisms of memory storage have attracted a great deal of attention. By comparison, little is known about memory allocation, the process that determines which specific neurons in a neural network will store a given memory. Previous studies demonstrated that memory allocation is not random in the amygdala; these studies showed(More)
Understanding how emotion is generated, how conflicting emotions are regulated, and how emotional states relate to sophisticated behaviors is a crucial challenge in brain research. Model animals showing selective emotion-related phenotypes are highly useful for examining these issues. Here, we describe a novel mouse model that withdraws in(More)