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The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of beta-amyloid (Abeta) oligomers, not the fibrils that make up Abeta plaques, on spatial memory and the cholinergic system in rats. Recently, several researchers have suggested that small assemblies of Abeta, Abeta oligomers, caused memory loss during the early stages of Alzheimer's disease without… (More)
In the present study, we examined the effects of nilvadipine and amlodipine, both dihydropyridine-derivative calcium antagonists, on the impairment of spatial memory induced by a combination of ischemia and beta-amyloid (Abeta). Nilvadipine (3.2 mg/kg, i.p.) significantly prevented the impairment of spatial memory and neuronal apoptosis in this model. By… (More)
The effects of Toki-shakuyaku-san (TSS) ingredients on acetylcholine (ACh) release in the dorsal hippocampus (DH) were investigated in intact and twice-repeated ischemic rats using in vivo microdialysis-HPLC. Moreover, the effect of TSS on blood flow was investigated in intact rats using laser Doppler flowmetry. TSS at 300 mg/kg p.o. increased ACh and blood… (More)
Zanapezil (TAK-147 (3-[1benzylpiperdin-4-yl]-1-(2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1 H-1-benzazepin-8-yl) propan-1-one fumarate)) is a selective acetylcholine (ACh) esterase inhibitor under investigation as a drug for Alzheimer's disease (AD) treatment. In this study, the effects of TAK-147 at 2 mg kg(-1) p.o. for 21 days, compared to donepezil (E2020), on the levels of… (More)
Reticulocytosis was induced in rabbits by bleeding anemia and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity was determined. Reticulocytes were found to contain about 1.3 times as much activity as mature erythrocytes.