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The adverse effects of botulinum LL toxin and neurotoxin produced by subtype A1 (A1LL and A1NTX) are becoming issues, as the toxins could diffuse from the toxin-treated (ipsilateral) to contralateral muscles. We have attempted to produce neurotoxin from subtype A2 (A2NTX) with an amino acid sequence different from that of neurotoxin subtype A1. We measured(More)
Bovine papillomavirus type 12 (BPV-12, putative type BAA1) was detected in epithelial papilloma located on the tongue of an infected cow. Then, the whole genome was sequenced, and phylogenetic analysis illustrated that it should be classified as a member of the genus Xipapillomavirus. The viral genome is 7197 base pairs in length and contains five early(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the long-term outcome of the stent fracture (SF) and the potential predictive factors contributing to in-stent restenosis (ISR) in the fractured stent. BACKGROUND The SF is thought to be a higher risk of ISR in drug-eluting stent, although SF does not always develop ISR. METHODS The consecutive 1,228 de novo lesions in 1,079(More)
OBJECTIVES This study sought to characterize coronary hyperintense plaques (HIP) using noncontrast T(1)-weighted imaging (T1WI) in cardiac magnetic resonance, which was then compared with multislice computed tomography and intravascular ultrasound. BACKGROUND Carotid plaque components such as intraplaque hemorrhages and/or lipid-rich necrotic cores can be(More)
Although equine infectious anemia (EIA) was described more than 150 years ago, complete genomic sequences have only been obtained from two field strains of EIA virus (EIAV), EIAV(Wyoming) and EIAV(Liaoning). In 2011, EIA was detected within the distinctive feral Misaki horse population that inhabits the Toi-Cape area of southern Japan. Complete proviral(More)
Equine infectious anemia (EIA) has posed a major challenge and caused significant losses to the equine industry worldwide. PCR detection methods have considerable potential as an adjunct to conventional serological diagnostic techniques. However, most published PCR methods, including that recommended by the OIE, were designed using laboratory-adapted virus(More)
Abnormal testes and uterus were observed in 13 males (33%) and one female (3%) out of 40 common minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata) in the western North Pacific. Similar lesions were found in testis and ovary, respectively, in one male (2%) and female (2%) out of 43 Bryde's whales (Balaenoptera edeni) in the western North Pacific. Grossly, granular(More)
Papillomaviruses (PVs) have been widely identified among vertebrates, but have not yet been reported to infect yaks. We report, for the first time, a novel deltapapillomavirus that was associated with fibropapilloma in yak herds on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Six skin papilloma samples were collected and examined using histopathology, immunohistochemistry(More)
Botulinum toxin type A is used as a therapeutic agent for some spastic neurological disorders. Type A organisms have been classified into four subtypes (A1 to A4) based on the amino acid sequence variability of the produced neurotoxin. At present, commercially available preparations of the toxin belong to subtype A1. To date, no study has compared the(More)
Botulinum toxin type A is a unique candidate for inhibition of pain transmission. In the present study we attempted to see the beneficial actions of A2 neurotoxin (NTX), an active subunit of botulinum toxin type A. Intraplantar injection of A2 NTX significantly suppressed mechanical allodynia and hypersensitivities to A-fiber stimuli in the diabetic(More)