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The adverse effects of botulinum LL toxin and neurotoxin produced by subtype A1 (A1LL and A1NTX) are becoming issues, as the toxins could diffuse from the toxin-treated (ipsilateral) to contralateral muscles. We have attempted to produce neurotoxin from subtype A2 (A2NTX) with an amino acid sequence different from that of neurotoxin subtype A1. We measured(More)
Bovine papillomavirus type 12 (BPV-12, putative type BAA1) was detected in epithelial papilloma located on the tongue of an infected cow. Then, the whole genome was sequenced, and phylogenetic analysis illustrated that it should be classified as a member of the genus Xipapillomavirus. The viral genome is 7197 base pairs in length and contains five early(More)
Botulinum toxin type A is a unique candidate for inhibition of pain transmission. In the present study we attempted to see the beneficial actions of A2 neurotoxin (NTX), an active subunit of botulinum toxin type A. Intraplantar injection of A2 NTX significantly suppressed mechanical allodynia and hypersensitivities to A-fiber stimuli in the diabetic(More)
Botulinum toxin type A is used as a therapeutic agent for some spastic neurological disorders. Type A organisms have been classified into four subtypes (A1 to A4) based on the amino acid sequence variability of the produced neurotoxin. At present, commercially available preparations of the toxin belong to subtype A1. To date, no study has compared the(More)
  • Jianbao Dong, Frank R. Cook, Takeshi Haga, Yoichiro Horii, Junzo Norimine, Naoaki Misawa +2 others
  • 2014
Although equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) poses a major threat to the equine industry worldwide, the molecular epidemiology of this virus is poorly understood. Recently, an EIAV strain (EIAVMiyazaki2011-A) representing a new monophyletic group was discovered in feral horses in southern Japan. In the present study, the EIAVMiyazaki2011-A proviral genome(More)
Temporal lobe epilepsy often shows pharmacoresistance, and well-known anti-convulsants sometimes are not effective for blocking chronic seizures. Botulinum neurotoxins are metalloproteases that act on presynaptic proteins and inhibit neurotransmitter release in both the peripheral and central nerve systems. That is why neurotoxins may elicit an effect for(More)
Equine infectious anemia (EIA) has posed a major challenge and caused significant losses to the equine industry worldwide. PCR detection methods have considerable potential as an adjunct to conventional serological diagnostic techniques. However, most published PCR methods, including that recommended by the OIE, were designed using laboratory-adapted virus(More)