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The tumor suppressor gene patched (ptc) encodes an approximately 140 kDa polytopic transmembrane protein [1-3] [corrected] that binds members of the Hedgehog (Hh) family of signaling proteins [4-6] [corrected] and regulates the activity of Smoothened (Smo), a G protein-coupled receptor-like protein essential for Hh signal transduction [7-9] [corrected]. Ptc(More)
Hedgehog (Hh) signalling plays a central role in many developmental processes in both vertebrates and invertebrates [1]. The multipass membrane-spanning proteins Patched (Ptc) [2-4] and Smoothened (Smo) [5-7] have been proposed to act as subunits of a putative Hh receptor complex. According to this view, Smo functions as the transducing subunit, the(More)
The Hedgehog signalling pathway is deployed repeatedly during normal animal development and its inappropriate activity is associated with various tumours in human. The serpentine protein Smoothened (Smo) is essential for cells to respond to the Hedeghog (Hh) signal; oncogenic forms of Smo have been isolated from human basal cell carcinomas. Despite(More)
The isolation and analysis of Drosophila mutants with altered sexual orientation lead to the identification of novel branches in the sex-determination cascade which govern the sexually dimorphic development of the nervous system. One such example is the fruitless (fru) gene, the mutation of which induces male-to-male courtship and malformation of a(More)
In the spinster (spin) mutant of Drosophila melanogaster, the extent of programmed cell death (PCD) in the abdominal ganglion 6 h after puparium formation (APF) is significantly reduced. The shortening of the abdominal ganglion, which is normally completed 48 h APF, does not occur. After eclosion, neurodegeneration accompanied by accumulation of(More)
Temperature affects the physiology, behavior, and evolution of organisms. We conducted mutagenesis and screens for mutants with altered temperature preference in Drosophila melanogaster and identified a cryophilic (cold-seeking) mutant, named atsugari (atu). Reduced expression of the Drosophila ortholog of dystroglycan (DmDG) induced tolerance to cold as(More)
Cloninger's theory is that specific dimensions of temperament are associated with single neurotransmitter systems, and it is based on neurophysiologic and genetic approaches to the human traits. It suggests that overexpression of temperament could cause psychiatric illness. Based on this theory, we examined the correlation between reward dependence (RD)(More)
Zyxin is an evolutionarily conserved protein that has been implicated in the regulation of actin assembly and is mainly located at focal adhesions. However, the biological roles of Zyxin in cancer cells are incompletely understood. We analyzed the functions of Zyxin in cell migration and the inva-sive potential of OSCC. Zyxin expression was examined using(More)
Following the publication of this article, an interested reader drew to our attention an anomaly associated with the presentation of Figs. 2 and 3. Essentially, there was a direct duplication of certain of the western blotting data between Fig. 2 (the E-cadherin and Actin data) and Fig. 3C (the Zyxin and Actin data). After having re-examined our original(More)
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