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Animals use their gustatory systems to evaluate the nutritious value, toxicity, sodium content, and acidity of food. Although characterization of molecular identities that receive taste chemicals is essential, molecular receptors underlying sour taste sensation remain unclear. Here, we show that two transient receptor potential (TRP) channel members, PKD1L3(More)
BACKGROUND The polycystic kidney disease-like ion channel PKD2L1 and its associated partner PKD1L3 are potential candidates for sour taste receptors. PKD2L1 is expressed in type III taste cells that respond to sour stimuli and genetic elimination of cells expressing PKD2L1 substantially reduces chorda tympani nerve responses to sour taste stimuli. However,(More)
Ligand-gated ion channels are important in sensory and synaptic transduction. The PKD1L3-PKD2L1 channel complex is a sour taste receptor candidate that is activated by acids. Here, we report that the proton-activated PKD1L3-PKD2L1 ion channels have the unique ability to be activated after the removal of an acid stimulus. We refer to this property as the(More)
In Japan we have had two outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth disease associated with disorders of the central nervous system, one in 1973 and the other in 1978. The isolated virus in both outbreaks was enterovirus 71. Central nervous system disorders were present in 24% of patients in 1973 and in 8% of patients in 1978. These disorders were localised(More)
Vertebrates receive tastants, such as sugars, amino acids, and nucleotides, via taste bud cells in epithelial tissues. In mammals, two families of G protein-coupled receptors for tastants are expressed in taste bud cells-T1Rs for sweet tastants and umami tastants (l-amino acids) and T2Rs for bitter tastants. Here, we report two families of candidate taste(More)
Recent progress in the molecular biology of taste reception has revealed that in mammals, the heteromeric receptors T1R1/3 and T1R2/3 respond to amino acids and sweeteners, respectively, whereas T2Rs are receptors for bitter tastants. Similar taste receptors have also been characterized in fish, but their ligands have not been identified yet. In the present(More)
PURPOSE To determine the utility of MR imaging in the evaluation of lingual carcinomas. MATERIAL AND METHODS Eleven patients with lingual carcinoma were evaluated with MR imaging including dynamic study within one week before surgery. Nine patients underwent preoperative chemotherapy or irradiation, and 2 patients had no preoperative treatment.(More)
The polycystic kidney disease (PKD) 1L3-PKD2L1 channel is a candidate sour taste receptor expressed in mammalian taste receptor cells. Various acids are reported to activate PKD channels after the removal of the acid stimuli, but little information is available on the activation of these channels by acetic acid. It was difficult to analyze the PKD channel(More)
The transient receptor potential channel, PKD2L1, is reported to be a candidate receptor for sour taste based on molecular biological and functional studies. Here, we investigated the expression pattern of PKD2L1-immunoreactivity (IR) in taste buds of the mouse. PKD2L1-IR is present in a few elongate cells in each taste bud as reported previously. The(More)