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Zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) are versatile reagents that have redefined genome engineering. Realizing the full potential of this technology requires the development of safe and effective methods for delivering ZFNs into cells. We demonstrate the intrinsic cell-penetrating capabilities of the standard ZFN architecture and show that direct delivery of ZFNs as(More)
Osteoarthritis (OA), the most prevalent aging-related joint disease, is characterized by insufficient extracellular matrix synthesis and articular cartilage degradation, mediated by several proteinases, including Adamts-5. miR-140 is one of a very limited number of noncoding microRNAs (miRNAs) specifically expressed in cartilage; however, its role in(More)
Muscle atrophy is caused by accelerated protein degradation and occurs in many pathological states. Two muscle-specific ubiquitin ligases, MAFbx/atrogin-1 and muscle RING-finger 1 (MuRF1), are prominently induced during muscle atrophy and mediate atrophy-associated protein degradation. Blocking the expression of these two ubiquitin ligases provides(More)
It is known that angiogenesis plays an important role in the growth and metastasis of solid tumours. Several angiogenic factors have been identified and platelet-derived endothelial cell growth factor (PD-ECGF) is thought to be one such factor. Recently, it was reported that thymidine phosphorylase (dThdPase) is identical to PD-ECGF. Using(More)
RNA interference (RNAi) is a conserved process in which a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) induces sequence-specific gene silencing. Recent developments in the use of the 21-nt small interfering RNA (siRNA) have allowed the specific degradation of mRNA without induction of nonspecific effects in mammalian cells. RNAi provides a method for knocking down genes of(More)
OBJECTIVE MicroRNA (miRNA) are a class of noncoding small RNAs that act as negative regulators of gene expression. MiRNA exhibit tissue-specific expression patterns, and changes in their expression may contribute to pathogenesis. The objectives of this study were to identify miRNA expressed in articular chondrocytes, to determine changes in osteoarthritic(More)
Sox9 plays a critical role in early chondrocyte initiation and promotion as well as repression of later maturation. Fellow Sox family members L-Sox5 and Sox6 also function as regulators of cartilage development by boosting Sox9 activation of chondrocyte-specific genes such as Col2a1 and Agc1; however, the regulatory mechanism and other target genes are(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as potential anticancer agents, but their clinical application is limited by the lack of an effective delivery system to tumors. Exosomes are small vesicles that play important roles in intercellular communication. Here, we show that synthetic miR-143 introduced into cells is released enveloped in exosomes and that the(More)
To define the region on the short arm of chromosome 1 that is thought to include one or more tumour-suppressor genes for gastric cancers, we carried out loss of heterozygosity (LOH) studies in 26 gastric adenocarcinomas, using three restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers and nine microsatellite markers. All tumours were informative with at(More)
We studied the clinical significance of the soluble cytokeratin 19 fragment detected with monoclonal antibody CYFRA 21-1 in the sera of patients with histologically proven gastric cancer. Sera of 110 patients with gastric cancer were analysed for CYFRA 21-1 levels by a two-step sandwich enzyme immunoassay. There were no significant differences between CYFRA(More)