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OBJECTIVE MicroRNA (miRNA) are a class of noncoding small RNAs that act as negative regulators of gene expression. MiRNA exhibit tissue-specific expression patterns, and changes in their expression may contribute to pathogenesis. The objectives of this study were to identify miRNA expressed in articular chondrocytes, to determine changes in osteoarthritic(More)
Osteoarthritis (OA), the most prevalent aging-related joint disease, is characterized by insufficient extracellular matrix synthesis and articular cartilage degradation, mediated by several proteinases, including Adamts-5. miR-140 is one of a very limited number of noncoding microRNAs (miRNAs) specifically expressed in cartilage; however, its role in(More)
Zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) are versatile reagents that have redefined genome engineering. Realizing the full potential of this technology requires the development of safe and effective methods for delivering ZFNs into cells. We demonstrate the intrinsic cell-penetrating capabilities of the standard ZFN architecture and show that direct delivery of ZFNs as(More)
Previously, we reported antibacterial activity in the body fluid of the nematode Ascaris suum (Kato, Y. (1995) Zool. Sci. 12, 225-230). The antibacterial activity is due to a heat-stable and trypsin-sensitive molecule that was designated as ASABF (A. suum antibacterial factor). In the present study, the purification, determination of primary structure, and(More)
Muscle atrophy is caused by accelerated protein degradation and occurs in many pathological states. Two muscle-specific ubiquitin ligases, MAFbx/atrogin-1 and muscle RING-finger 1 (MuRF1), are prominently induced during muscle atrophy and mediate atrophy-associated protein degradation. Blocking the expression of these two ubiquitin ligases provides(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of non-coding small RNAs that act as negative regulators of gene expression through sequence-specific interactions with the 3' untranslated regions (UTRs) of target mRNA and play various biological roles. miR-133 was identified as a muscle-specific miRNA that enhanced the proliferation of myoblasts during myogenic(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as potential anticancer agents, but their clinical application is limited by the lack of an effective delivery system to tumors. Exosomes are small vesicles that play important roles in intercellular communication. Here, we show that synthetic miR-143 introduced into cells is released enveloped in exosomes and that the(More)
Sox9 plays a critical role in early chondrocyte initiation and promotion as well as repression of later maturation. Fellow Sox family members L-Sox5 and Sox6 also function as regulators of cartilage development by boosting Sox9 activation of chondrocyte-specific genes such as Col2a1 and Agc1; however, the regulatory mechanism and other target genes are(More)
Three humoral defense activities (antibacterial, bacteriolytic and agglutinating) were detected in the body fluid of the nematode Ascaris suum. Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis) were more sensitive to the antibacterial activity than the Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli). The antibacterial activity was heat stable(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of noncoding small RNAs that act as negative regulators of gene expression. To identify miRNAs that may regulate human cell immortalization and carcinogenesis, we performed comparative miRNA array profiling of human normal and SV40-T antigen immortalized cells. We found that miR-296 was upregulated in immortalized cells that(More)