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The wheat ALMT1 gene encodes an aluminum (Al)-activated malate transport protein which confers Al-resistance. We investigated the membrane topology of this plasma-membrane localized protein with immunocytochemical techniques. Several green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fused and histidine (His)-tagged chimeras of ALMT1 were prepared based on a(More)
The periodontal ligament (PDL) is a highly specialized tissue connecting the cementum with the tooth socket bone and affects the life span of the tooth. However, little is known about the precise characteristics and regenerative mechanism of PDL cells because of the absence of specific markers and cell lines. Therefore, we aimed to establish three(More)
Various undifferentiated embryonic stem (ES) cells can grow on mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) feeders. However, the risk of zoonosis from animal feeders to human ES cells generally excludes the clinical use of these human ES cells. We have found that human placenta is a useful source of feeder cells for the undifferentiated growth of primate ES cells. As(More)
We investigated whether artepillin C, a major component of Brazilian propolis, acts as a neurotrophic-like factor in rat PC12m3 cells, in which nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced neurite outgrowth is impaired. When cultures of PC12m3 cells were treated with artepillin C at a concentration of 20 microM, the frequency of neurite outgrowth induced by artepillin(More)
During continuous culture of neural PC12 cells, we obtained a drug-hypersensitive PC12 mutant cell that showed high stimulation of neurite outgrowth by various drugs. When several Chinese medicines such as shu-jing-huo-xie-tang and Wu-Ling-San were provided to these PC12 mutant cells, the frequency of nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced neurite outgrowth(More)
During continuous culturing, PC12 cells are subject to spontaneous mutations. We obtained PC12m3 cells, clone cells in which outgrowth of neuronal processes (dendrites and axons) under the condition of nerve growth factor (NGF) treatment was highly stimulated by various inducers, such as cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), calcium ionophore, steroid and(More)
Among the 3 mitogen-activated protein kinases--ERK, p38 MAPK and JNK--JNK has been suggested to participate in apoptosis, whereas p38 MAPK is thought to be part of the differentiation response. There are many common inducers of JNK and p38 MAPK, but the mechanisms underlying the differential response to apoptosis and differentiation are poorly understood.(More)
We investigated how the pea (Pisum sativum cv. Harunoka) root, upon return to an Al-free condition, recovers from injury caused by exposure to Al. Elongation and re-elongation of the root during the recovery process from Al injury occurred only in the apical 5-mm region of the pea root. With the model system of the pea root for recovery from Al injury,(More)
Although it is known that sustained activation of classical mitogen-induced protein kinase (MAPK, also known as ERK) induced by nerve growth factor (NGF) plays an important role in the induction of neurite outgrowth, the role of p38 MAPK in neural cell function is still not clear. We developed two neuronal cell lines from PC12 cells, PC12m3 and PC12m32, in(More)
We investigated the role of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in heat-shock-induced neurite outgrowth of PC12 mutant cells in which nerve growth factor (NGF)-induced neurite outgrowth is impaired. When cultures of the PC12 mutant (PC12m3) cells were exposed to heat stress at 44 degrees C for 10 min, activity of p38 MAPK increased and(More)