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Cancer cells consume large amounts of glucose because of their specific metabolic pathway. However, cancer cells exist in tumor tissue where glucose is insufficient. To survive, cancer cells likely have the mechanism to elude their glucose addiction. Here we show that functional mitochondria are essential if cancer cells are to avoid glucose addiction.(More)
Two active polysaccharide fractions (SF1 and SF2) purified from dried safflower petals (Carthamus tinctorius L.) stimulated the synthesis of various cytokines by peritoneal macrophages. In a number of cell types, SF1 and SF2 induced a rapid degradation of IkappaB alpha essential for the activation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB. Toll-like receptor 4(More)
BACKGROUND Glucose deprivation, a feature of poorly vascularized solid tumors, activates the unfolded protein response (UPR), a stress-signaling pathway, in tumor cells. We recently isolated a novel macrocyclic compound, versipelostatin (VST), that inhibits transcription from the promoter of GRP78, a gene that is activated as part of the UPR. We examined(More)
In response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6), an ER membrane-anchored transcription factor, is transported to the Golgi apparatus and cleaved by site-1 protease (S1P) to activate the unfolded protein response (UPR). Here, we identified nucleobindin 1 (NUCB1) as a novel repressor of the S1P-mediated ATF6(More)
Translational control of gene expression plays a key role during the early phases of embryonic development. Here we describe a transcriptional regulator of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs), Yin-yang 2 (YY2), that is controlled by the translation inhibitors, Eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding proteins (4E-BPs). YY2 plays a critical role in regulating(More)
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha activates the nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) signaling pathway. The protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide (CHX) and its structural derivative acetoxycycloheximide (Ac-CHX) have been recently shown to block the TNF-alpha-induced activation of NF-kappaB via ectodomain shedding of TNF receptor 1 (TNF-R1) in human lung(More)
The mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is a critical regulator of protein synthesis. The best studied targets of mTORC1 in translation are the eukaryotic initiation factor-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1) and ribosomal protein S6 kinase 1 (S6K1). In this study, we identify the La-related protein 1 (LARP1) as a key novel target of mTORC1 with a(More)
Biguanides, including metformin, buformin, and phenformin, are potential antitumorigenic agents and induce cell death during glucose deprivation, a cell condition that occurs in the tumor microenvironment. Here, we show that this selective killing of glucose-deprived cells is coupled with hyperactivation of eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1(More)
We recently isolated a macrocyclic compound, versipelostatin (VST), that exerts in vivo antitumor activity. VST shows unique, selective cytotoxicity to glucose-deprived tumor cells by preventing the unfolded protein response (UPR). Here we show that eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (4E-BP1), a negative regulator of eukaryotic initiation(More)
NUCB1 (nucleobindin 1) is a Golgi-localized soluble protein with a signal peptide and multiple functional domains. We reported recently that NUCB1 is a negative regulator of the unfolded protein response that activates various endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-originating signaling pathways. In that report, we also showed that Golgi localization of NUCB1 was(More)