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Understanding radial and azimuthal variation, and tree-to-tree variation, in sap flux density (Fd) as sources of uncertainty is important for estimating transpiration using sap flow techniques. In a Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica D. Don.) forest, Fd was measured at several depths and aspects for 18 trees, using heat dissipation (Granier-type) sensors.(More)
In this study, we aimed to assess how sample sizes affect confidence of stand-scale transpiration (E) estimates calculated from sap flux (F(d)) and sapwood area (A(S_tree)) measurements of individual trees. In a Japanese cypress plantation, we measured F(d) and A(S_tree) in all trees (n = 58) within a 20 x 20 m study plot, which was divided into four 10 x(More)
Growth-blocking peptide (GBP) is a small (25 amino acids) insect cytokine with a variety of functions: controlling the larval development of lepidopteran insects, acting as a mitogen for various types of cultured cells, and stimulating insect blood cells. The aromatic residues of GBP (Phe-3, Tyr-11, and Phe-23) are highly conserved in the ENF peptide family(More)
This study carried out analysis of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) communities in 12 sewage activated sludge systems standing in eight sewage treatment plants located in Tokyo. The systems were different in the treatment process configuration: anaerobic/anoxic/aerobic (A20), anaerobic/aerobic (AO), and conventional activated sludge (AS) processes. AOB(More)
Although interest in peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis has recently been increasing, the mechanisms driving these diseases remain unknown. Here, the effects of titanium ions on the inflammation and bone resorption around an implant were investigated. First, the accumulated amount of Ti ions released into gingival and bone tissues from an implant(More)
Familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy is a hereditary autosomal-dominant disease in which the deposited transthyretin fibrils are derived from amyloidogenic mutation. We investigated structure and stability of a human Ser112Ile transthyretin variant and showed that the Ser112Ile variant exists as a dimer having nonnative tertiary structure at physiological(More)
Transthyretin single-amino-acid variants are responsible for familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy, in which transthyretin variants accumulate extracellularly in the form of fibrillar aggregates. We studied the structural stabilities of four transthyretin variants (L58H, L58R, T59K, and E61K), in which a positively charged amino acid is introduced in a loop(More)
Plant-plant interspecific competition via pollinators occurs when the flowering seasons of two or more plant species overlap and the pollinator fauna is shared. Negative sexual interactions between species (reproductive interference) through improper heterospecific pollen transfer have recently been reported between native and invasive species demonstrating(More)
Canopy transpiration (E C) varies among forest stands with different structures. To evaluate different E C for Japanese cypress we observed E C for 5 months, by use of the sap flow technique, in two adjacent stands of different ages with contrasting structures. Mean diameter at breast height was 13.5 and 44.6 cm and stem density was 2100 and 350 trees ha−1(More)
The prevalence of forestry practices such as thinning and pruning have gradually decreased since the 1980s. Researchers have noted an increased flood risk with decreased forestry practices for coniferous plantations in Japan on the basis of infiltration and overland flow measurements at a plot scale (typically several square meters). However, no studies(More)