Yoshinori Nagai

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Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is a mammalian homologue of Drosophila Toll, a leucine-rich repeat molecule that can trigger innate responses against pathogens. The TLR4 gene has recently been shown to be mutated in C3H/HeJ and C57BL/10ScCr mice, both of which are low responders to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). TLR4 may be a long-sought receptor for LPS. However,(More)
Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) mediates lipopolysaccharide (LPS) signaling in a variety of cell types. MD-2 is associated with the extracellular domain of TLR4 and augments TLR4-dependent LPS responses in vitro. We show here that MD-2(-/-) mice do not respond to LPS, do survive endotoxic shock but are susceptible to Salmonella typhimurium infection. We found(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are best known for their ability to recognize microbial or viral components and initiate innate immune responses. We showed here that TLRs and their coreceptors were expressed by multipotential hematopoietic stem cells, whose cell cycle entry was triggered by TLR ligation. TLR expression also extended to some of the early(More)
OBJECTIVE To characterize the phenotypic changes of adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) under different conditions of insulin sensitivity. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The number and the expressions of marker genes for M1 and M2 macrophages from mouse epididymal fat tissue were analyzed using flow cytometry after the mice had been subjected to a high-fat(More)
Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and MD-2 recognizes lipid A, the active moiety of microbial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Little is known about mechanisms for LPS recognition by TLR4-MD-2. Here we show ligand-induced TLR4 oligomerization, homotypic interaction of TLR4, which directly leads to TLR4 signaling. Since TLR4 oligomerization normally occurred in the(More)
Endotoxin, a bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), causes fatal septic shock via Toll-like receptor (TLR)4 on effector cells of innate immunity like macrophages, where it activates nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases to induce proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. Dok-1 and Dok-2 are(More)
Interleukin-5 (IL-5) is an interdigitating homodimeric glycoprotein that is initially identified by its ability to support the in vitro growth and differentiation of mouse B cells and eosinophils. IL-5 transgenic mouse shows two predominant features, remarkable increase in B-1 cells resulting in enhanced serum antibody levels, predominantly IgM, IgA, and(More)
While some studies have suggested that hematopoietic stem cells might give rise to other tissue types, others indicate that transdifferentiation would have to be an extremely rare event. We have now exploited smooth muscle type alpha-actin (alphaSMA) promoter-driven green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic mice (alphaSMA-GFP mice) for bone marrow(More)
The susceptibility to infections induced by Gram-negative bacteria is largely determined by innate immune responses to bacteria cell wall lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The stimulation of B cells by LPS enhances their antigen-presenting capacity and is accompanied by B cell proliferation and secretion of large quantities of LPS-neutralizing antibodies. Similar(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are innate recognition molecules for microbial products, but their direct interactions with corresponding ligands remain unclarified. LPS, a membrane constituent of gram-negative bacteria, is the best-studied TLR ligand and is recognized by TLR4 and MD-2, a molecule associated with the extracellular domain of TLR4. Although(More)