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Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is a mammalian homologue of Drosophila Toll, a leucine-rich repeat molecule that can trigger innate responses against pathogens. The TLR4 gene has recently been shown to be mutated in C3H/HeJ and C57BL/10ScCr mice, both of which are low responders to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). TLR4 may be a long-sought receptor for LPS. However,(More)
Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) mediates lipopolysaccharide (LPS) signaling in a variety of cell types. MD-2 is associated with the extracellular domain of TLR4 and augments TLR4-dependent LPS responses in vitro. We show here that MD-2(-/-) mice do not respond to LPS, do survive endotoxic shock but are susceptible to Salmonella typhimurium infection. We found(More)
OBJECTIVE To characterize the phenotypic changes of adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) under different conditions of insulin sensitivity. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The number and the expressions of marker genes for M1 and M2 macrophages from mouse epididymal fat tissue were analyzed using flow cytometry after the mice had been subjected to a high-fat(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are best known for their ability to recognize microbial or viral components and initiate innate immune responses. We showed here that TLRs and their coreceptors were expressed by multipotential hematopoietic stem cells, whose cell cycle entry was triggered by TLR ligation. TLR expression also extended to some of the early(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are innate recognition molecules for microbial products, but their direct interactions with corresponding ligands remain unclarified. LPS, a membrane constituent of gram-negative bacteria, is the best-studied TLR ligand and is recognized by TLR4 and MD-2, a molecule associated with the extracellular domain of TLR4. Although(More)
IL-5 is involved in a number of immune responses such as helminth infection and allergy. IL-5 also plays roles in innate immunity by maintaining B-1 B cells and mucosal IgA production. However, the identity of IL-5-producing cells has not been unambiguously characterized. In this report, we describe the generation of an IL-5 reporter mouse and identify(More)
RAG1/GFP knock-in mice were used to precisely chart the emergence and expansion of cells that give rise to the immune system. Lymphopoietic cells detectable in stromal co-cultures arose as early as E8.5, i.e. prior to establishment of the circulation within the paraaortic splanchnopleura (P-Sp). These cells were Tie2+ RAG1- CD34(Lo/-) Kit+ CD41-. While yolk(More)
Immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked (IPEX) syndrome is an autoimmune disorder caused by mutations in the FOXP3 gene, which plays a key role in the generation of CD4(+)CD25(+)regulatory T (Treg) cells. We selected CD127 as the surface marker of Treg cells to illustrate the development and function of Treg cells in IPEX syndrome.(More)
LPS is recognized by TLR4 and radioprotective 105 kDa in B cells. Susceptibility to LPS in murine B cells is most closely linked to the locus containing the TLR4 gene. However, the molecular mechanism underlying genetic control of LPS sensitivity by this locus has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we revealed that C57BL/6 (B6) B cells respond to(More)
The susceptibility to infections induced by Gram-negative bacteria is largely determined by innate immune responses to bacteria cell wall lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The stimulation of B cells by LPS enhances their antigen-presenting capacity and is accompanied by B cell proliferation and secretion of large quantities of LPS-neutralizing antibodies. Similar(More)