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Membrane traffic in eukaryotic cells involves transport of vesicles that bud from a donor compartment and fuse with an acceptor compartment. Common principles of budding and fusion have emerged, and many of the proteins involved in these events are now known. However, a detailed picture of an entire trafficking organelle is not yet available. Using synaptic(More)
Fasting has been used to control epilepsy since antiquity, but the mechanism of coupling between metabolic state and excitatory neurotransmission remains unknown. Previous work has shown that the vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) required for exocytotic release of glutamate undergo an unusual form of regulation by Cl(-). Using functional(More)
L-Glutamate is believed to function as an intercellular transmitter in the islets of Langerhans. However, critical issues, i.e. where, when and how L-glutamate appears, and what happens upon stimulation of glutamate receptors in the islets, remain unresolved. Vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2), an isoform of the vesicular glutamate transporter(More)
D-Aspartate in mammalian neuronal and neuroendocrine cells is suggested to play a regulatory role(s) in the neuroendocrine function. Although D-aspartate is known to be released from neuroendocrine cells, the mechanism underlying the release is less understood. Rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells contain an appreciable amount of D-aspartate (257 +/- 31(More)
Pinealocytes, endocrine cells that synthesize and secrete melatonin, possess a large number of synaptic-like microvesicles (MVs) containing the L-glutamate transporter (Moriyama, Y., and Yamamoto, A. (1995) FEBS Lett., 367, 233-236). In this study, the L-glutamate transporter in MVs isolated from bovine pineal glands was characterized as to its driving(More)
Vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) are responsible for the vesicular storage of l-glutamate and play an essential role in glutamatergic signal transmission in the central nervous system. The molecular mechanism of the transport remains unknown. Here, we established a novel in vitro assay procedure, which includes purification of wild and mutant(More)
ATP is known to be coreleased with glutamate at certain central synapses. However, the nature of its release is controversial. Here, we demonstrate that ATP release from cultured rat hippocampal neurons is sensitive to RNAi-mediated knockdown of the recently identified vesicular nucleotide transporter (VNUT or SLC17A9). In the intact brain, light microscopy(More)
Rat pinealocytes, melatonin-secreting endocrine cells, contain peripheral glutaminergic systems. L-Glutamate is a negative regulator of melatonin synthesis through a metabotropic receptor-mediated inhibitory cAMP cascade. Previously, we reported that depolarization of pinealocytes by externally added KCl and activation of L-type Ca2+ channels resulted in(More)
Vesicular glutamate transporter is present in neuronal synaptic vesicles and endocrine synaptic-like microvesicles and is responsible for vesicular storage of L-glutamate. A brain-specific Na(+)-dependent inorganic phosphate transporter (BNPI) functions as a vesicular glutamate transporter in synaptic vesicles, and the expression of this BNPI defines the(More)
Aspartate is an excitatory amino acid that is costored with glutamate in synaptic vesicles of hippocampal neurons and synaptic-like microvesicles (SLMVs) of pinealocytes and is exocytosed and stimulates neighboring cells by binding to specific cell receptors. Although evidence increasingly supports the occurrence of aspartergic neurotransmission, this(More)