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Membrane traffic in eukaryotic cells involves transport of vesicles that bud from a donor compartment and fuse with an acceptor compartment. Common principles of budding and fusion have emerged, and many of the proteins involved in these events are now known. However, a detailed picture of an entire trafficking organelle is not yet available. Using synaptic(More)
In mammals, toxic electrolytes of endogenous and exogenous origin are excreted through the urine and bile. Before excretion, these compounds cross numerous cellular membranes in a transporter-mediated manner. However, the protein transporters involved in the final excretion step are poorly understood. Here, we show that MATE1, a human and mouse orthologue(More)
ATP is a major chemical transmitter in purinergic signal transmission. Before secretion, ATP is stored in secretory vesicles found in purinergic cells. Although the presence of active transport mechanisms for ATP has been postulated for a long time, the proteins responsible for its vesicular accumulation remains unknown. The transporter encoded by the human(More)
L-Glutamate is believed to function as an intercellular transmitter in the islets of Langerhans. However, critical issues, i.e. where, when and how L-glutamate appears, and what happens upon stimulation of glutamate receptors in the islets, remain unresolved. Vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2), an isoform of the vesicular glutamate transporter(More)
Abscisic acid (ABA) is one of the most important phytohormones involved in abiotic stress responses, seed maturation, germination, and senescence. ABA is predominantly produced in vascular tissues and exerts hormonal responses in various cells, including guard cells. Although ABA responses require extrusion of ABA from ABA-producing cells in an(More)
In islets of Langerhans, L-glutamate is stored in glucagon-containing secretory granules of alpha-cells and cosecreted with glucagon under low-glucose conditions. The L-glutamate triggers secretion of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) from beta-cells, which in turn inhibits glucagon secretion from alpha-cells through the GABAA receptor. In the present study,(More)
Fasting has been used to control epilepsy since antiquity, but the mechanism of coupling between metabolic state and excitatory neurotransmission remains unknown. Previous work has shown that the vesicular glutamate transporters (VGLUTs) required for exocytotic release of glutamate undergo an unusual form of regulation by Cl(-). Using functional(More)
Multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins (MATEs) are multispecific organic cation transporters mediating the efflux of various cationic drugs into the urine. The present study aimed at identifying endogenous compounds in human plasma and urine specimens as biomarkers to evaluate drug interactions involving MATEs in the kidney without administration of their(More)
Osteoclasts are involved in the catabolism of the bone matrix and eliminate the resulting degradation products through transcytosis, but the molecular mechanism and regulation of transcytosis remain poorly understood. Upon differentiation, osteoclasts express vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (VGLUT1), which is essential for vesicular storage and subsequent(More)
Islets of Langerhans contain gamma-aminobutyrate (GABA) and may use it as an intercellular transmitter. In beta-cells, GABA is stored in synaptic-like microvesicles and secreted through Ca(2+)-dependent exocytosis. Vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter (VIAAT), which is responsible for the storage of GABA and glycine in neuronal synaptic vesicles, is(More)