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In macroautophagy, cytoplasmic components are delivered to lysosomes for degradation via autophagosomes that are formed by closure of cup-shaped isolation membranes. However, how the isolation membranes are formed is poorly understood. We recently found in yeast that a novel ubiquitin-like system, the Apg12-Apg5 conjugation system, is essential for(More)
Glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD;E.C. catalyzes the production of GABA, the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain. We recently isolated a lambda gt-11 recombinant, lambda-GAD, that contains the cDNA for GAD from feline brain (Kaufman et al., 1986). Interestingly, the beta-galactosidase-GAD fusion protein encoded by lambda GAD is(More)
In this paper, we introduce a fast and robust method for tracking positions of the centers and the ngertips of both right and left hands. Our method makes use of infrared c amera images for reliable detection of user's hands, and uses template matching strategy for nding ngertips. This method is an essential part of our augmented desk interface in which a(More)
The cDNA coding for human monocyte-derived neutrophil-specific chemotactic factor (MDNCF) was cloned from LPS-stimulated human monocyte mRNA. The cDNA sequence codes for a polypeptide consisting of 99 amino acids, including a putative signal sequence. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence with the NH2-terminal amino acid sequence of natural MDNCF(More)
Although the capabilities of Trichoderma reesei cellulases have been greatly improved, these enzymes are still too costly for commercial use. The aim of this research was to assess the biomass saccharification capability of JN11, a recombinant cellulase, compared with that of the commercially available cellulases Accellerase 1500 and Cellic CTec. The(More)
SUMMARY This paper presents a method for real-time 3D human tracking based on the particle filter by incorporating environment models. We track a human head represented with its 3D position and orientation by integrating the multiple cues from a set of distributed sensors. In particular, the multi-viewpoint color and depth images obtained from distributed(More)
Human eyes not only serve the function of enabling us "to see" something, but also perform the vital role of allowing us "to show" our gaze for non-verbal communication. The eyes of service robots should therefore also perform both of these functions. Moreover, they should be friendly in appearance so that humans may feel comfortable with the robots.(More)
This article describes a design and implementation of an augmented desk system, named EnhancedDesk, which smoothly integrates paper and digital information on a desk. The system provides users an intelligent environment that automatically retrieves and displays digital information corresponding to the real objects (e.g., books) on the desk by using computer(More)
This paper describes two interface prototypes which we have developed on our augmented desk interface system, EnhancedDesk. The first application is Interactive Textbook, which is aimed at providing an effective learning environment. When a student opens a page which describes experiments or simulations, Interactive Textbook automatically retrieves digital(More)