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In macroautophagy, cytoplasmic components are delivered to lysosomes for degradation via autophagosomes that are formed by closure of cup-shaped isolation membranes. However, how the isolation membranes are formed is poorly understood. We recently found in yeast that a novel ubiquitin-like system, the Apg12-Apg5 conjugation system, is essential for(More)
Macroautophagy is the major intracellular degradation system delivering cytoplasmic components to the lysosome/vacuole. We have shown that, in yeast and mammalian cells, the Apg12-Apg5 protein conjugate, which is formed by a ubiquitin-like system, is essential for autophagosome formation. In yeast, the Apg12-Apg5 conjugate interacts with a small coiled-coil(More)
Introduction The Osborn wave is a deflection with a dome or hump configuration occurring at the R-ST junction (J point) on the ECG (Fig. 1). In the historical view, different names have been used for this wave in the medical literature, such as " camel-hump sign " , " late delta wave " , " hathook junction " , " hypothermic wave " , " J point wave " , " K(More)
This article describes a design and implementation of an augmented desk system, named EnhancedDesk, which smoothly integrates paper and digital information on a desk. The system provides users an intelligent environment that automatically retrieves and displays digital information corresponding to the real objects (e.g., books) on the desk by using computer(More)
In this paper, we introduce a fast and robust method for tracking positions of the centers and the ngertips of both right and left hands. Our method makes use of infrared c amera images for reliable detection of user's hands, and uses template matching strategy for nding ngertips. This method is an essential part of our augmented desk interface in which a(More)
To develop a Trichoderma reesei strain appropriate for the saccharification of pretreated cellulosic biomass, a recombinant T. reesei strain, X3AB1, was constructed that expressed an Aspergillus aculeatus β-glucosidase 1 with high specific activity under the control of the xyn3 promoter. The culture supernatant from T. reesei X3AB1 grown on 1% Avicel as a(More)
Although the capabilities of Trichoderma reesei cellulases have been greatly improved, these enzymes are still too costly for commercial use. The aim of this research was to assess the biomass saccharification capability of JN11, a recombinant cellulase, compared with that of the commercially available cellulases Accellerase 1500 and Cellic CTec. The(More)
To compare NADH-regeneration systems for the synthesis of (S)-4-chloro-3-hydroxybutanoate (ECHB), a novel NADH-dependent carbonyl reductase (KaCR1), which reduced ethyl 4-chloroacetoacetate (ECAA) to form (S)-ECHB, was screened and purified from Kluyveromyces aestuarii and a gene encoding KaCR1 was cloned. Glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) and formate(More)
Sodium-glucose cotransporter (SGLT) 2 plays an important role in renal glucose reabsorption, and inhibition of renal SGLT2 activity represents an innovative strategy for the treatment of hyperglycemia in diabetic patients. The present study investigated the antidiabetic effects of ipragliflozin, a SGLT2-selective inhibitor, in(More)
A series of C-glucosides with various heteroaromatics has been synthesized and its inhibitory activity toward SGLTs was evaluated. Upon screening several compounds, the benzothiophene derivative (14a) was found to have potent inhibitory activity against SGLT2 and good selectivity versus SGLT1. Through further optimization of 14a, a novel benzothiophene(More)