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In macroautophagy, cytoplasmic components are delivered to lysosomes for degradation via autophagosomes that are formed by closure of cup-shaped isolation membranes. However, how the isolation membranes are formed is poorly understood. We recently found in yeast that a novel ubiquitin-like system, the Apg12-Apg5 conjugation system, is essential for(More)
To compare NADH-regeneration systems for the synthesis of (S)-4-chloro-3-hydroxybutanoate (ECHB), a novel NADH-dependent carbonyl reductase (KaCR1), which reduced ethyl 4-chloroacetoacetate (ECAA) to form (S)-ECHB, was screened and purified from Kluyveromyces aestuarii and a gene encoding KaCR1 was cloned. Glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) and formate(More)
A set of homozygous diploid deletion mutants of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae was screened for the genes required for tolerance to aliphatic alcohols. The screen identified 137, 122 and 48 deletion mutants sensitive to ethanol, 1-propanol and 1-pentanol, respectively. A number of the genes required for ethanol tolerance were those also required for(More)
Macroautophagy is the major intracellular degradation system delivering cytoplasmic components to the lysosome/vacuole. We have shown that, in yeast and mammalian cells, the Apg12-Apg5 protein conjugate, which is formed by a ubiquitin-like system, is essential for autophagosome formation. In yeast, the Apg12-Apg5 conjugate interacts with a small coiled-coil(More)
The synthesis of ethyl (R)-4-chloro-3-hydroxybutanoate ((R)-ECHB) from ethyl 4-chloroacetoacetate was studied using whole recombinant cells of Escherichia coli expressing a secondary alcohol dehydrogenase of Candida parapsilosis. Using 2-propanol as an energy source to regenerate NADH, the yield of (R)-ECHB reached 36.6 g/l (more than 99% ee, 95.2%(More)
The nad7 gene, encoding subunit 7 of NADH dehydrogenase, is mitochondrially encoded in seed plants. In the liverwort, Marchantia polymorpha, only a pseudogene is located in the mitochondrial genome. We have now identified the functional nad7 gene copy in the nuclear genome of Marchantia, coding for a polypeptide of 468 amino acids. The nuclear-encoded nad7(More)
  • Y Kobayashi
  • 2001
The epidemiological and clinical observations of 240 patients with Weil's disease and 10 patients with canicola fever, and these observations in two epidemics of canicola fever, are presented. Early diagnosis is most important for the prognosis of patients with the severe form of leptospirosis. It depends on the clinical features, clinical laboratory(More)
Evodiamine, an alkaloidal component extracted from the fruit of Evodiae fructus (Evodia rutaecarpa Benth., Rutaceae), exhibits antiproliferative, antimetastatic, and apoptotic activities through a poorly defined mechanism. Because several genes that regulate cellular proliferation, carcinogenesis, metastasis, and survival are regulated by nuclear(More)
Introduction The Osborn wave is a deflection with a dome or hump configuration occurring at the R-ST junction (J point) on the ECG (Fig. 1). In the historical view, different names have been used for this wave in the medical literature, such as " camel-hump sign " , " late delta wave " , " hathook junction " , " hypothermic wave " , " J point wave " , " K(More)
As leptospirosis is a treatable disease, early diagnosis and prompt treatment are important for better prognosis. Early diagnosis depends on the knowledge of epidemiological factors, presenting features and use of appropriate laboratory tests. Early institution of appropriate antimicrobial therapy in combination with supportive therapy reduces the mortality(More)