Yoshinobu Okubo

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Small endotherms employ multiple adaptations to maintain energy balance in winter, including spontaneous daily torpor and simultaneous huddling. The relationships between these adaptations have been discussed in several previous studies, but it has not been well-established if huddling actually affects the expression of torpor in small endotherms. We(More)
In mammals, social tolerance among females, the philopatric sex, is formed through continued physical proximity between kin after offspring are weaned. However, the benefits of continued close association may be outweighed by costs such as local resource competition and risk of inbreeding. We hypothesized that for ‘philopatric females’, a flexible tendency(More)
Many small mammal species use torpor as a strategy for reducing energy expenditure in winter. Some rodent hibernators also hoard food to provide reserves of energy, and individuals with large hoards express less torpor than those with smaller reserves. These facts imply that animals can recognize levels of food availability, but where food is very(More)
Intensive monitoring of multiple taxonomic groups is essential to understand ecosystem structure and function. In such studies, plant ecologists desire to monitor animal communities as efficiently as possible. We examined the efficiency of two trapping methods with different trap distances and total trapping areas for monitoring forest-floor rodent(More)
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