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Axon pruning is a common phenomenon in neural circuit development. Previous studies demonstrate that the engulfing action of glial cells is essential in this process. The underlying molecular mechanisms, however, remain unknown. We show that draper (drpr) and ced-6, which are essential for the clearance of apoptotic cells in C. elegans, function in the(More)
Influenza virus-infected cells undergo apoptosis and become susceptible to phagocytosis by macrophages in vitro, and this leads to the propagation of the virus being inhibited. We previously showed that inhibitors of phagocytosis increased the rate of mortality among influenza virus-infected mice. However, the mode of the phagocytosis of influenza(More)
To elucidate the molecular basis of the binding of proteins to the membrane phospholipid phosphatidylserine (PS), we characterized PS-binding peptides isolated from a phage display library. Amino acid sequences deduced from the nucleotide sequences of over 60 phage clones isolated revealed that there was no common primary structure among these peptides, but(More)
After engulfment of apoptotic cells through phosphatidylserine (PS)-mediated recognition, microglia secrete prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a potent anti-inflammatory molecule in the central nervous system. Despite the clinical significance, the mechanism underlying PGE2 production by phagocytosis of apoptotic cells is poorly understood. In the present study, we(More)
Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) of macrophages recognizes LPS of Gram-negative bacteria in cooperation with CD14, which is also involved in the recognition of apoptotic cells. In this study we asked whether TLR4 plays a role in the phagocytic clearance of apoptotic cells by macrophages. Macrophages were prepared from peritoneal fluid of thioglycolate-treated(More)
Necrosis, a kind of cell death closely associated with pathogenesis and genetic programs, is distinct from apoptosis in both morphology and mechanism. Like apoptotic cells, necrotic cells are swiftly removed from animal bodies to prevent harmful inflammatory and autoimmune responses. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, gain-of-function mutations in(More)
The role and pathological significance of apoptosis in an influenza virus-infected host has been hotly debated. Influenza virus-induced apoptosis was primarily thought to be a host defense mechanism to limit virus replication and eliminate viruses from the host; however, the virus has mechanisms not only to overcome but to utilize apoptosis for its(More)
Liposomes containing phosphatidylserine (PS) are engulfed by phagocytes including macrophages, microglia, and dendritic cells. PS liposomes (PSLs) mimic the effects of apoptotic cells on these phagocytes to induce the secretion of anti-inflammatory molecules and to inhibit the maturation of dendritic cells. However, the effects of PSLs on osteoclasts, which(More)
In the Results section, under the subheading " ANOH-1 acts in touch neurons to promote the removal of necrotic touch neurons " , the sentence " In addition, Pmec-7 anoh-1b::gfp also leads to the recovery of PS exposure on necrotic neuron surfaces (S7 Fig) " is incorrect. The sentence should read: " In addition, Pmec-7 anoh-1b::mCherry also leads to the(More)
This study considers a robotic pitching task with the goal of implementing dynamic manipulation. The strategy used to control the pitching direction of the ball is based on human pitching action, and involves rolling the fingers on the ball at release. The effect of varying the time of release in the pitching direction is analyzed based on ball dynamics.(More)