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Axon pruning is a common phenomenon in neural circuit development. Previous studies demonstrate that the engulfing action of glial cells is essential in this process. The underlying molecular mechanisms, however, remain unknown. We show that draper (drpr) and ced-6, which are essential for the clearance of apoptotic cells in C. elegans, function in the(More)
The mechanism of phagocytic elimination of dying cells in Drosophila is poorly understood. This study was undertaken to examine the recognition and engulfment of apoptotic cells by Drosophila hemocytes/macrophages in vitro and in vivo. In the in vitro analysis, l(2)mbn cells (a cell line established from larval hemocytes of a tumorous Drosophila mutant)(More)
Testicular Sertoli cells phagocytose apoptotic spermatogenic cells in a manner depending on the membrane phospholipid phosphatidylserine (PS) expressed at the surface of the latter cell type. Our previous studies have indicated that class B scavenger receptor type I (SR-BI) is responsible for the PS-mediated phagocytosis by Sertoli cells. We examined here(More)
Some synthetic lipopeptides, in addition to native lipoproteins derived from both Gram-negative bacteria and mycoplasmas, are known to activate TLR2 (Toll-like receptor 2). However, the native lipoproteins inherent to Gram-positive bacteria, which function as TLR2 ligands, have not been characterized. Here, we have purified a native lipoprotein to(More)
Integrin βν, one of two β subunits of Drosophila integrin, acts as a receptor in the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells. We here examined the involvement of this receptor in defense against infection by Staphylococcus aureus. Flies lacking integrin βν died earlier than control flies upon a septic but not oral infection with this bacterium. A loss of integrin(More)
Double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR), a serine/threonine kinase, is activated in virus-infected cells and acts as an antiviral machinery of type I interferons. PKR controls several stress response pathways induced by double-stranded RNA, tumor necrosis factor-alpha or lipopolysaccharide, which result in the activation of stress-activated(More)
The data presented here are an extension of the molecular characterization of DNA puff C4 of Bradysia hygida. A cDNA related to a gene amplified in this puff and expressed when puff C4 expands was cloned and sequenced. Analysis of the amino acid sequence deduced from the open reading frame present in the cDNA indicate that the encoded protein is secreted(More)
Integrins exert a variety of cellular functions as heterodimers of two transmembrane subunits named α and β. Integrin βν, a β-subunit of Drosophila integrin, is involved in the phagocytosis of apoptotic cells and bacteria. Here, we searched for an α-subunit that forms a complex and cooperates with βν. Examinations of RNAi-treated animals suggested that(More)
More than half of differentiating spermatogenic cells undergo apoptosis before maturing into spermatozoa during mammalian spermatogenesis. These cells are selectively and rapidly eliminated through phagocytosis by Sertoli cells, a testicular somatic cell type possessing phagocytic activity. We have investigated the mechanism by which Sertoli cells(More)
Class B scavenger receptor type I (SR-BI) is a multiligand membrane protein expressed in a variety of cell types. This receptor is responsible for the incorporation of lipids from high density lipoprotein (HDL) by steroidogenic cells, as well as for the phosphatidylserine (PS)-mediated phagocytosis of apoptotic cells by some phagocytic cell types, such as(More)