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Tumor-promoting phorbol esters such as 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) directly activate in vitro Ca2+-activated, phospholipid-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase C), which normally requires unsaturated diacylglycerol. Kinetic analysis indicates that TPA can substitute for diacylglycerol and greatly increases the affinity of the enzyme for(More)
The ERM proteins, ezrin, radixin, and moesin, are involved in the actin filament/plasma membrane interaction as cross-linkers. CD44 has been identified as one of the major membrane binding partners for ERM proteins. To examine the CD44/ERM protein interaction in vitro, we produced mouse ezrin, radixin, moesin, and the glutathione-S-transferase (GST)/CD44(More)
Small GTP-binding proteins (G proteins) exist in eukaryotes from yeast to human and constitute a superfamily consisting of more than 100 members. This superfamily is structurally classified into at least five families: the Ras, Rho, Rab, Sar1/Arf, and Ran families. They regulate a wide variety of cell functions as biological timers (biotimers) that initiate(More)
PSD-95 is a component of postsynaptic densities in central synapses. It contains three PDZ domains that localize N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit 2 (NMDA2 receptor) and K+ channels to synapses. In mouse forebrain, PSD-95 bound to the cytoplasmic COOH-termini of neuroligins, which are neuronal cell adhesion molecules that interact with beta-neurexins(More)
Cdc42 is a small GTPase of the Rho family which regulates the formation of actin filaments to generate filopodia. Although there are several proteins such as PAK, ACK and WASP (Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein) that bind Cdc42 directly, none of these can account for the filopodium formation induced by Cdc42. Here we demonstrate that before it can induce(More)
The cytomatrix at the active zone (CAZ) has been implicated in defining the site of Ca2+-dependent exocytosis of neurotransmitter. We have identified here a novel CAZ protein of approximately 120 kD from rat brain and named it CAST (CAZ-associated structural protein). CAST had no transmembrane segment, but had four coiled-coil domains and a putative(More)
Nectins are immunoglobulin-like cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) that compose a family of four members. Nectins homophilically and heterophilically interact in trans with each other to form cell-cell adhesions. In addition, they heterophilically interact in trans with other immunoglobulin-like CAMs. Nectins bind afadin, an actin filament (F-actin)-binding(More)
Although cAMP is well known to regulate exocytosis in many secretory cells, its direct target in the exocytotic machinery is not known. Here we show that cAMP-GEFII, a cAMP sensor, binds to Rim (Rab3-interacting molecule, Rab3 being a small G protein) and to a new isoform, Rim2, both of which are putative regulators of fusion of vesicles to the plasma(More)
The cadherin superfamily plays key roles in intercellular adhesion. An emerging intercellular adhesion system, consisting of nectin and afadin, also has roles in organization of a variety of intercellular junctions either in cooperation with, or independently of, cadherin. Nectin is a Ca(2+)-independent immunoglobulin-like intercellular adhesion molecule,(More)
Warburg Micro syndrome (WARBM1) is a severe autosomal recessive disorder characterized by developmental abnormalities of the eye and central nervous system and by microgenitalia. We identified homozygous inactivating mutations in RAB3GAP, encoding RAB3 GTPase activating protein, a key regulator of the Rab3 pathway implicated in exocytic release of(More)