Yoshimasa Sagane

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Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) has been increasingly recognized in plants by indirect evidence of its activity. Here, we report purification and cloning of AChE from maize (Zea mays), thus providing to our knowledge the first direct evidence of the AChE molecule in plants. AChE was identified as a mixture of disulfide- and noncovalently linked 88-kD homodimers(More)
A unique strain of Clostridium botulinum, serotype D 4947 (D-4947), produces a considerable amount of a 650 kDa toxin complex (L-TC) and a small amount of a 280 kDa M-TC, a 540 kDa TC, and a 610 kDa TC. The complexes are composed of only un-nicked components, including neurotoxin (NT), nontoxic nonhemagglutinin (NTNHA) and hemagglutinin subcomponents(More)
The purified progenitor toxin of Clostridium botulinum type C strain 6814 (C-6814) forms a large complex composed of 150-kDa neurotoxin (NT), 130-kDa nontoxic-nonhemagglutinin (NTNHA), and hemagglutinin (HA) components. The HA component consisted of a mixture of several subcomponents with molecular masses of 70, 55, 33, 26-21 and 17 kDa. We isolated the HA(More)
Extracellular matrices play important, but poorly investigated, roles in morphogenesis. Extracellular cellulose is central to regulation of pattern formation in plants, but among metazoans only tunicates are capable of cellulose biosynthesis. Cellulose synthase (CesA) gene products are present in filter-feeding structures of all tunicates and also regulate(More)
Normally, large-sized botulinum toxin complexes (L-TC) of serotype C and D are composed of a single neurotoxin, a single non-toxic non-haemagglutinin, two HA-70 molecules, four HA-33 molecules and four HA-17 molecules that assemble to form a 650 kDa L-TC. The 540 and 610 kDa TC species (designated here as L-TC2 and L-TC3, respectively) were purified in(More)
A novel colorless acid phosphatase (KeACP), which was distinct from the kidney bean purple acid phosphatase, was purified to apparent homogeneity and cloned from embryonic axes of kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. Ohfuku) during germination. When orthovanadate (VO(4)(-3)) is added to the apo form of the enzyme, KeACP uniquely exhibits the chloroperoxidase(More)
Previously we isolated six actinomycetes strains, 9-4, 10-1, 10-2, 10-3, 10-6, and 21-4, that produce phospholipase D (PLD) with high transphosphatidylation activity. In this study, we identified these strains, and the PLD activities were compared with those of reference strains. 16S rDNA sequences and DNA–DNA hybridization tests indicated taxonomic(More)
Large-sized botulinum toxin complex (L-TC) is formed by conjugation of neurotoxin, nontoxic nonhemagglutinin and hemagglutinin (HA) complex. The HA complex is formed by association of three HA-70 molecules and three HA-33/HA-17 trimers, comprised of a single HA-17 and two HA-33 proteins. The HA-33/HA-17 trimer isolated from serotype D L-TC has the ability(More)
Extracellular matrices regulate biological processes at the level of cells, tissues, and in some cases, entire multicellular organisms. The subphylum Urochordata exemplifies the latter case, where animals are partially or completely enclosed in "houses" or "tunics". Despite this common strategy, we show that the house proteome of the appendicularian,(More)
Clostridium botulinum type D strain 4947 produces two different sizes of progenitor toxins (M and L) as intact forms without proteolytic processing. The M toxin is composed of neurotoxin (NT) and nontoxic-nonhemagglutinin (NTNHA), whereas the L toxin is composed of the M toxin and hemagglutinin (HA) subcomponents (HA-70, HA-17, and HA-33). The HA-70(More)