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Extracellular matrices play important, but poorly investigated, roles in morphogenesis. Extracellular cellulose is central to regulation of pattern formation in plants, but among metazoans only tunicates are capable of cellulose biosynthesis. Cellulose synthase (CesA) gene products are present in filter-feeding structures of all tunicates and also regulate(More)
Large-sized botulinum toxin complex (L-TC) is formed by conjugation of neurotoxin, nontoxic nonhemagglutinin and hemagglutinin (HA) complex. The HA complex is formed by association of three HA-70 molecules and three HA-33/HA-17 trimers, comprised of a single HA-17 and two HA-33 proteins. The HA-33/HA-17 trimer isolated from serotype D L-TC has the ability(More)
Extracellular matrices regulate biological processes at the level of cells, tissues, and in some cases, entire multicellular organisms. The subphylum Urochordata exemplifies the latter case, where animals are partially or completely enclosed in "houses" or "tunics". Despite this common strategy, we show that the house proteome of the appendicularian,(More)
Phospholipase D (PLD) catalyzes transphosphatidylation, causing inter-conversion of the polar head group of phospholipids and phospholipid hydrolysis. Previously, we cloned PLD103, a PLD with high transphosphatidylation activity, from Streptomyces racemochromogenes strain 10-3. Here, we report the construction of an expression system for the PLD103 gene(More)
Clostridium botulinum type D strain 4947 produces two different sizes of progenitor toxins (M and L) as intact forms without proteolytic processing. The M toxin is composed of neurotoxin (NT) and nontoxic-nonhemagglutinin (NTNHA), whereas the L toxin is composed of the M toxin and hemagglutinin (HA) subcomponents (HA-70, HA-17, and HA-33). The HA-70(More)
Clostridium botulinum produces a large toxin complex (L-TC) that increases paracellular permeability in intestinal epithelial cells by a mechanism that remains unclear. Here, we show that mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are involved in this permeability increase. Paracellular permeability was measured by FITC-dextran flux through a monolayer of(More)
Using SDS-PAGE, we found that one subcomponent, hemagglutinin (HA-33), from the Clostridium botulinum progenitor toxin of type D strain 1873 and type C strain Yoichi had slightly smaller molecular sizes than those of type C and D reference strains, but other components did not. Based on N- and C-terminal sequence analyses of HA-33, a deletion of 31 amino(More)
A large size botulinum toxin complex (L-TC) is composed of a single neurotoxin (BoNT), a single nontoxic nonhaemagglutinin (NTNHA) and a haemagglutinin (HA) complex. The HA complex is comprised of three HA-70 molecules and three arm structures of HA-33/HA-17 that consist of two HA-33 and a single HA-17. In addition to the mature L-TC, smaller TCs are(More)
Clostridium botulinum serotype D strains usually produce two types of stable toxin complex (TC), namely, the 300 kDa M (M-TC) and the 660 kDa L (L-TC) toxin complexes. We previously proposed assembly pathways for both TCs [Kouguchi, H., et al. (2002) J. Biol. Chem. 277, 2650-2656]: M-TC is composed by association of neurotoxin (NT) and nontoxic(More)
A unique strain of Clostridium botulinum, serotype D 4947 (D-4947), produces a considerable amount of a 650 kDa toxin complex (L-TC) and a small amount of a 280 kDa M-TC, a 540 kDa TC, and a 610 kDa TC. The complexes are composed of only un-nicked components, including neurotoxin (NT), nontoxic nonhemagglutinin (NTNHA) and hemagglutinin subcomponents(More)