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The nervous systems affect immune functions by releasing neurohormones and neurotransmitters. A neurotransmitter dopamine signals via five different seven-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors termed D1 to D5. The secondary lymphoid tissues are highly innervated by sympathetic nerve fibers that store dopamine at high contents. Lymphocytes also produce(More)
Eotaxin-3/CCL26 is a functional ligand for CCR3 and abundantly produced by IL-4-/IL-13-stimulated vascular endothelial cells. CCL26 also functions as a natural antagonist for CCR1, CCR2, and CCR5. In this study, we report that CCL26 is yet a functional ligand for CX3CR1, the receptor for fractalkine/CX3CL1, which is expressed by CD16(+) NK cells, cytotoxic(More)
OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to clarify the prognostic significance of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC); the present study analyzed various TIL-related parameters. STUDY DESIGN Immunohistochemistry was performed in 87 patients with OSCC for the following TIL-related parameters: nest-CD8(+) T cells,(More)
In head and neck surgery, free-flap reconstruction using a microvascular anastomosis is an indispensable option after tumor ablation. Because the success of free-flap reconstruction is enhanced by rapid identification and salvage of failing flaps, postoperative monitoring of free flaps is essential. We describe a new technique using indocyanine green (ICG)(More)
Most oral cancers are oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The anatomical features of OSCC have been histochemically evaluated with hematoxylin and eosin. However, the border between the cancer and stromal regions is unclear and large portions of the cancer and stromal regions are resected in surgery. To reduce the resected area and maintain oral function,(More)
The significance of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) has attracted much attention in relation to the prognosis of patients. We herein examined the activation status of the TILs in relation to the tumor microenvironment. By using frozen sections of human early-stage tongue cancers (n = 22), the TILs in the cancer nests and those in the cancer stroma were(More)
BACKGROUND Although the terms tortuous, coiling, and kinking have been used to describe the curvature of the carotid artery, the prevalence rates of these patterns have differed among studies. We morphologically evaluated the characteristics of the carotid artery by means of three-dimensional computed tomography (3DCT) to clarify the prevalence of(More)
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