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Examples of lateral asymmetry are often found in vertebrates, such as the heart being on the left side, but the molecular mechanism governing the establishment of this left-right (L-R) handedness is unknown. A diffusible morphogen may determine L-R polarity, but a likely molecule has not so far been identified. Here we report on the gene lefty, a member of(More)
Oct3 is an embryonic octamer-binding transcription factor, whose expression is rapidly repressed by retinoic acid (RA). In this report, we have determined the transcriptional control region of the oct3 gene and studied the mechanism of the RA-mediated repression. The chromosomal oct3 gene consists of five exons. Three subdomains of the POU region and(More)
To investigate the involvement of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase) in meiotic maturation of porcine oocytes, we assayed MAP kinase activity using myelin basic protein (MBP) as a substrate. MAP kinase activity was low during the germinal vesicle stage, 0-20 h of culture. An abrupt increase was observed at metaphase I (30 h of culture), and(More)
Deterioration in the quality of mammalian oocytes during the metaphase-II arrest period is well known as "oocyte aging." Oocytes in which aging has occurred are called aged oocytes, and these oocytes show enhanced activation and higher fragmentation rates after parthenogenetic activation. Previously we showed that porcine aged oocytes had low(More)
Macrophage type-I and type-II class-A scavenger receptors (MSR-A) are implicated in the pathological deposition of cholesterol during atherogenesis as a result of receptor-mediated uptake of modified low-density lipoproteins (mLDL). MSR-A can bind an extraordinarily wide range of ligands, including bacterial pathogens, and also mediates cation-independent(More)
Coinjection of unfertilized mouse oocytes with sperm heads and exogenous DNA encoding either a green fluorescent protein (GFP) or beta-galactosidase reporter produced 64 to 94 percent transgene-expressing embryos, reflecting DNA-sperm head association before coinjection. Nonselective transfer to surrogate mothers of embryos in the GFP series generated about(More)
In Xenopus oocytes, Mos activates the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal transduction cascade and regulates meiosis. In mammalian oocytes, however, the functions of Mos are still unclear. In the present study, we used c-mos knockout mouse oocytes and examined the roles of Mos in mouse oocyte maturation and fertilization, including whether Mos(More)
The receptors for IL-3, GM-CSF, and IL-5 share a common beta subunit (beta c), and mice have an additional IL-3 beta subunit (beta IL3). We have independently generated mice carrying null mutations of each molecule. beta c mutant bone marrow showed no response to GM-CSF or IL-5, whereas IL-3 stimulation of beta c or beta IL3 mutant bone marrow was normal.(More)
Bovine oocytes matured in vitro were fertilized in high proportions (92% of matured oocytes) by sperm capacitated with Ca ionophore A23187. Eight percent of inseminated oocytes that were denuded 96 h after insemination developed to the morula stage when cultured for 6-120 h after insemination with cumulus cells from the original oocytes. Inseminated oocytes(More)