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Structures within the piriform cortex (PC) including the endopiriform nucleus (DEN) and pre-endopiriform nucleus (pEn) have been implicated to be involved in seizure genesis in models of temporal lobe epilepsy. We used stereological methods to examine the specificity and extent of neuron loss in the PC of pilocarpine-treated rats. Both 7 days and 2 months(More)
The retrosplenial cortex consists of areas 29a-d, each of which has different connections with other cortical and subcortical regions. Although these areas also make complex interconnections that constitute part of a neural circuit subserving various functions, such as spatial memory and navigation, the details of such interconnections have not been studied(More)
The organization of the laminar and topographical projections from the presubiculum to the entorhinal area was studied in the rat by anterograde labeling with Phaseolus vulgaris leucoagglutinin and retrograde labeling with horseradish peroxidase conjugated to wheat germ agglutinin. We found that the pattern of presubiculo-entorhinal projections differs(More)
The hypocretin (also known as orexin) neuropeptide system coordinates the regulation of various physiological processes. A reduction in Nr6a1 expression was observed in hypocretin neuron-ablated transgenic mice. To show that prepro-hypocretin transcription is functionally modulated by NR6A1, we performed chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis,(More)
The distribution pattern of the cells that give rise to perforant path projections, including direct entorhino-CA1 and entorhino-subicular projections, was investigated in layer III of the medial and lateral entorhinal areas in the rat using retrograde labeling with horseradish peroxidase conjugated to wheat germ agglutinin and cholera toxin B subunit.(More)
An optimal level of dopamine (DA) in the mammalian prefrontal cortex (PFC) is critical for higher cognitive control of behavior. Too much or too little DA in the PFC induces impairment in working memory (WM) task performance. PFC DA is also concerned with motivation. When reward is anticipated and/or delivered, an increase in PFC DA release is observed. In(More)
The anterior thalamic nuclei consist of the anterodorsal (AD), anteroventral, and anteromedial nuclei, each of which are highly differentiated and may contribute to different aspects of various cognitive and memory functions. In particular, the AD is unique in that it is implicated in learning at the earliest stage of discriminative avoidance conditioning(More)
Attention is reported to be maintained by monoamines, acetylcholine and amino acids systems. Changes in the releases of these neurotransmitters during the three stages comprising quiet wake (QW) and two arousal states (AW), which are activated from different sources, were investigated. Norepinephrine releases during AW were significantly higher than that(More)
Correlated neuronal activity plays a fundamental role in the development of the nervous system. Using a multiple-site optical recording technique with a fast voltage-sensitive dye, we previously reported a novel form of correlated activity in the chick embryo, which showed wide propagation throughout the CNS. In this study, we report that similar wave(More)
To investigate whether a diurnal animal possesses the orexinergic system implicating vigilance and behavior, we examined Fos immunoreactivity (IR) in orexinergic neurons of Korean chipmunks raised under 12h light-dark cycles. Brain tissue, collected at four different zeitgeber times (ZT), was double-labeled with Fos and orexin-A antibodies. There was no(More)