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Directed cell migration requires cell polarization and adhesion turnover, in which the actin cytoskeleton and microtubules work critically. The Rho GTPases induce specific types of actin cytoskeleton and regulate microtubule dynamics. In migrating cells, Cdc42 regulates cell polarity and Rac works in membrane protrusion. However, the role of Rho in(More)
Cytoskeleton is believed to contribute to activity-dependent processes underlying neuronal plasticity, such as regulations of cellular morphology and localization of signaling proteins. However, how neuronal activity controls actin cytoskeleton remains obscure. Taking advantage of confocal imaging of enhanced GFP-actin in the primary culture of hippocampal(More)
Rho-GTPase has been implicated in axon outgrowth. However, not all of the critical steps controlled by Rho have been well characterized. Using cultured cerebellar granule neurons, we show here that stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1alpha, a neural chemokine, is a physiological ligand that can turn on two distinct Rho-dependent pathways with opposite(More)
The cortical actin cytoskeleton beneath the plasma membrane represents a physical barrier that vaccinia virus has to overcome during its exit from an infected cell. Previous observations using overexpression and pharmacological approaches suggest that vaccinia enhances its release by modulating the cortical actin cytoskeleton by inhibiting RhoA signalling(More)
The small GTPase Rho acts on two effectors, ROCK and mDia1, and induces stress fibers and focal adhesions. However, how ROCK and mDia1 individually regulate signals and dynamics of these structures remains unknown. We stimulated serum-starved Swiss 3T3 fibroblasts with LPA and compared the effects of C3 exoenzyme, a Rho inhibitor, with those of Y-27632, a(More)
OBJECTIVE The intra-arterial infusion of papaverine has been used for dilation of spastic cerebral vessels after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage, although its efficacy is controversial. Milrinone is an inotropic drug that dilates vessels by phosphodiesterase inhibition in a mechanism similar to that of papaverine. We examined the effects of(More)
The preservation of language function during brain surgery still poses a challenge. No intraoperative methods have been established to monitor the language network reliably. We aimed to establish intraoperative language network monitoring by means of cortico-cortical evoked potentials (CCEPs). Subjects were six patients with tumors located close to the(More)
During a screen for novel putative Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK)-like CREB kinases (CLICKs), we have cloned a full-length cDNA for CLICK-III/CaMKIgamma, an isoform of the CaMKI family with an extended C-terminal domain ending with CAAX motif (where AA is aliphatic acid). As expected from the similarity of its kinase domain with the other(More)
Rho-GTPase has been implicated in the apoptosis of many cell types, including neurons, but the mechanism by which it acts is not fully understood. Here, we investigate the roles of Rho and ROCK in apoptosis during transplantation of embryonic stem cell-derived neural precursor cells. We find that dissociation of neural precursors activates Rho and induces(More)