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CaBP1-8 are neuronal Ca(2+)-binding proteins with similarity to calmodulin (CaM). Here we show that CaBP4 is specifically expressed in photoreceptors, where it is localized to synaptic terminals. The outer plexiform layer, which contains the photoreceptor synapses with secondary neurons, was thinner in the Cabp4(-/-) mice than in control mice. Cabp4(-/-)(More)
Two kinds of retinal cDNA fragments (OIGRK-R and -C) encoding the putative G-protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) were isolated from medaka, Oryzias latipes. OIGRK-R appears to be closely related to the rhodopsin kinase (RK) found in the outer segments of mammalian photoreceptors, but the deduced amino acid sequence of OIGRK-C shows less than 50%(More)
Usher syndrome 3A (USH3A) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by progressive loss of hearing and vision due to mutation in the clarin-1 (CLRN1) gene. Lack of an animal model has hindered our ability to understand the function of CLRN1 and the pathophysiology associated with USH3A. Here we report for the first time a mouse model for ear disease(More)
Phototransduction in vertebrate photoreceptor cells mediated by rhodopsin is one of the most comprehensively examined G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling pathways. The signal transduction pathway can be mapped from the initial absorption of light to conformational changes within rhodopsin, through activation of the G protein transducin, and to the(More)
Protein conformational disorders, which include certain types of retinitis pigmentosa, are a set of inherited human diseases in which mutant proteins are misfolded and often aggregated. Many opsin mutants associated with retinitis pigmentosa, the most common being P23H, are misfolded and retained within the cell. Here, we describe a pharmacological(More)
In all eukaryotic cells, and particularly in neurons, Ca(2+) ions are important second messengers in a variety of cellular signaling pathways. In the retina, Ca(2+) modulation plays a crucial function in the development of the visual system's neuronal connectivity and a regulatory role in the conversion of the light signal received by photoreceptors into an(More)
Neuropilin-1 (NRP1) functions as a coreceptor through interaction with plexin A1 or vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor during neuronal development and angiogenesis. NRP1 potentiates the signaling pathways stimulated by semaphorin 3A and VEGF-A in neuronal and endothelial cells, respectively. In this study, we investigate the role of tumor(More)
The cellular uptake of vitamin A from its RBP4-bound circulating form (holo-RBP4) is a homeostatic process that evidently depends on the multidomain membrane protein STRA6. In humans, mutations in STRA6 are associated with Matthew-Wood syndrome, manifested by multisystem developmental malformations. Here we addressed the metabolic basis of this inherited(More)
Calmodulin-like neuronal Ca2+-binding proteins (NCBPs) are expressed primarily in neurons and contain a combination of four functional and nonfunctional EF-hand Ca2+-binding motifs. The guanylate cyclase-activating proteins 1-3 (GCAP1-3), the best characterized subgroup of NCBPs, function in the regulation of transmembrane guanylate cyclases 1-2 (GC1-2).(More)
Retinoids carry out essential functions in vertebrate development and vision. Many of the retinoid processing enzymes remain to be identified at the molecular level. To expand the knowledge of retinoid biochemistry in vertebrates, we studied the enzymes involved in plant metabolism of carotenoids, a related group of compounds. We identified a family of(More)