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Oak gallwasps are cyclically parthenogenetic insects that induce a wide diversity of highly complex species- and generation-specific galls on oaks and other Fagaceae. Phylogenetic relationships within oak gallwasps remain to be established, while sexual and parthenogenetic generations of many species remain unpaired. Previous work on oak gallwasps has(More)
Gall clusters of Andricus symbioticus secrete a sweet and sticky food attractive to ants. An ant exclusion experiment demonstrated the selective advantage of attending ants and gall aggregation for A. symbioticus. This gall wasp interacts with the gall-attending ants only through the host plant. Evolution of this symbiotic relationship seems to be(More)
PURPOSE To investigate the feasibility of a stereotactic single high dose irradiation of lung tumors under respiratory gating and the clinical response. METHODS AND MATERIALS Twenty-three malignant lung tumors less than 40mm in diameter were treated by a single fractional irradiation. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Local regrowth was seen in three of ten tumors(More)
The larval endoparasitoid, Neochrysocharis formosa (Westwood), is an important natural enemy of the leafminer Liriomyza trifolii (Burgess) in Japan. The thelytokous strain of N. formosa mostly produces female progeny. Male progeny were produced by females treated with tetracycline, suggesting that microorganisms induce thelytoky in N. formosa. The result of(More)
Stereotactic radiosurgery for body tumors is hampered by the difficulties in body fixation and respiratory motions of the tumor. We have developed a Microton-based system for the stereotactic irradiation of body tumors, which delivers radiation at a predetermined respiratory phase. The patients are fixed non-invasively in the custom-made bed, and CT images(More)
Sympatric speciation is strictly defined as the emergence of two species from a population in which mating has been random with respect to the place of birth of the mating partners. Mathematical models have shown that sympatric speciation is possible, but very few examples have been documented in nature. In this article, we demonstrate that arrhenotokous(More)
Under field conditions, species displacements have occurred in different directions between the same invasive species of leafminers (Diptera: Agromyzidae). Liriomyza sativae (Blanchard) was displaced by L. trifolii (Burgess) in the western United States, with evidence suggesting that lower insecticide susceptibility of L. trifolii is a factor. However, in(More)
The Andricus mukaigawae complex of oak gall wasps is composed of cyclically parthenogenetic species: A. mukaigawae and Andricus kashiwaphilus, and a parthenogenetic species, Andricus pseudoflos. The component species differ in life history, host plant, karyotype, and asexual gall shape, although little difference is found in the external morphology of(More)
The influence of deviations in dwell times and source positions for (192)Ir HDR-RALS was investigated. The potential dose errors for various kinds of brachytherapy procedures were evaluated. The deviations of dwell time ΔT of a (192)Ir HDR source for the various dwell times were measured with a well-type ionization chamber. The deviations of source position(More)
Many parasitic organisms have an ability to manipulate their hosts to increase their own fitness. In parasitoids, behavioral changes of mobile hosts to avoid or protect against predation and hyperparasitism have been intensively studied, but host manipulation by parasitoids associated with endophytic or immobile hosts has seldom been investigated. We(More)