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Polyamines are low molecular weight, aliphatic polycations found in the cells of all living organisms. Due to their positive charges, polyamines bind to macromolecules such as DNA, RNA, and proteins. They are involved in diverse processes, including regulation of gene expression, translation, cell proliferation, modulation of cell signalling, and membrane(More)
Arabidopsis thaliana was thought to contain two spermine synthase genes, ACAULIS 5 (ACL5) and SPMS. Recent investigations, however, revealed that the ACL5 gene encodes thermospermine synthase. In this study, we have established a simple method to separate two isomers of tetraamine, spermine and thermospermine, in extracts from plant tissues of less than 500(More)
An overexpression screen of Nicotiana benthamiana cDNAs identified a gene for the LCB2 subunit of serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT) as a potent inducer of hypersensitive response-like cell death. The pyridoxal 5'-phosphate binding site of NbLCB2 is required for its function as a cell death inducer. NbLCB2 mRNA is accumulated after infection by nonhost(More)
It is known that the polyamine (PA) biosynthetic pathway is modulated at the transcriptional level during abiotic stresses. Here we studied the expression of PA biosynthetic pathway genes upon exposure to heat shock (HS) in Arabidopsis and showed that the spermine (Spm) synthase gene (SPMS) and S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase 2 gene are induced at the(More)
Sucrose is known to repress the translation of Arabidopsis thaliana AtbZIP11 transcript which encodes a protein belonging to the group of S (S--stands for small) basic region-leucine zipper (bZIP)-type transcription factor. This repression is called sucrose-induced repression of translation (SIRT). It is mediated through the sucrose-controlled upstream open(More)
A high-throughput overexpression screen of Nicotiana benthamiana cDNAs identified a gene for a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MAPKK) as a potent inducer of the hypersensitive response (HR)-like cell death. NbMKK1 protein is localized to the nucleus, and the N-terminal putative MAPK docking site of NbMKK1 is required for its function as a(More)
Polyamines (PAs) play important roles in cell proliferation, growth and environmental stress responses of all living organisms. In this study, we examine whether these compounds act as signal mediators. Spermine (Spm) specifically activated protein kinases of tobacco leaves, which were identified as salicylic acid (SA)-induced protein kinase (SIPK) and(More)
The genome of Arabidopsis thaliana contains five genes (AtPAO1 to AtPAO5) encoding polyamine oxidase (PAO) which is an enzyme responsible for polyamine catabolism. To understand the individual roles of the five AtPAOs, here we characterized their tissue-specific and space-temporal expression. AtPAO1 seems to have a specific function in flower organ. AtPAO2(More)
A cellular signal transduction pathway induced by the polyamine, spermine (Spm), and transmitted by mitochondrial dysfunction is proposed in tobacco. In this investigation, we further resolve the pathway by identifying a subset of hypersensitive response (HR) marker genes as downstream components. In a previous report, we identified harpin-induced 1 (HIN1)(More)
Polyamines are small aliphatic amines found in all living organisms except some Archaea. In plants, putrescine, spermidine, and spermine are major components which are not only involved in fundamental cellular processes, for example cell proliferation, differentiation, and programmed cell death, but also in adaptive responses to environmental stress. In(More)