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Polyamines are low molecular weight, aliphatic polycations found in the cells of all living organisms. Due to their positive charges, polyamines bind to macromolecules such as DNA, RNA, and proteins. They are involved in diverse processes, including regulation of gene expression, translation, cell proliferation, modulation of cell signalling, and membrane(More)
Polyamines are small aliphatic amines found in all living organisms except some Archaea. In plants, putrescine, spermidine, and spermine are major components which are not only involved in fundamental cellular processes, for example cell proliferation, differentiation, and programmed cell death, but also in adaptive responses to environmental stress. In(More)
Polyamines (PAs) play important roles in cell proliferation, growth and environmental stress responses of all living organisms. In this study, we examine whether these compounds act as signal mediators. Spermine (Spm) specifically activated protein kinases of tobacco leaves, which were identified as salicylic acid (SA)-induced protein kinase (SIPK) and(More)
We previously proposed that a spermine (Spm)-mediated signal transduction pathway is involved in the hypersensitive response induced by Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) in tobacco plants. To identify regulatory component(s) of this pathway, we surveyed a tobacco cDNA library and found that the ZFT1 gene, which encodes a Cys2/His2 type zinc-finger protein, is(More)
The genome of Arabidopsis thaliana contains five genes (AtPAO1 to AtPAO5) encoding polyamine oxidase (PAO) which is an enzyme responsible for polyamine catabolism. To understand the individual roles of the five AtPAOs, here we characterized their tissue-specific and space-temporal expression. AtPAO1 seems to have a specific function in flower organ. AtPAO2(More)
Phytophthora infestans INF1 elicitin causes the hypersensitive response (HR) in Nicotiana benthamiana (Kamoun et al. in Plant Cell 10:1413–1425, 1998). To identify N. benthamiana proteins that interact with INF1, we carried out a yeast two-hybrid screen. This screen resulted in the isolation of a gene NbLRK1 coding for a novel lectin-like receptor kinase.(More)
It is well known that changes in abiotic conditions such as the concentration of ions, temperature and humidity lead to modulation of polyamine contents in plants. However, little is known about the relevant parts these polyamines play in abiotic stress responses. Here we addressed a specific role of spermine during high salt stress using an Arabidopsis(More)
Arabidopsis thaliana was thought to contain two spermine synthase genes, ACAULIS 5 (ACL5) and SPMS. Recent investigations, however, revealed that the ACL5 gene encodes thermospermine synthase. In this study, we have established a simple method to separate two isomers of tetraamine, spermine and thermospermine, in extracts from plant tissues of less than 500(More)
The core structure of membrane lipids of archaea have some unique properties that permit archaea to be distinguished from the others, i.e. bacteria and eukaryotes. (S)-2,3-Di-O-geranylgeranylglyceryl phosphate synthase, which catalyzes the transfer of a geranylgeranyl group from geranylgeranyl diphosphate to (S)-3-O-geranylgeranylglyceryl phosphate, is(More)
An overexpression screen of Nicotiana benthamiana cDNAs identified a gene for the LCB2 subunit of serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT) as a potent inducer of hypersensitive response-like cell death. The pyridoxal 5'-phosphate binding site of NbLCB2 is required for its function as a cell death inducer. NbLCB2 mRNA is accumulated after infection by nonhost(More)