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In order to characterize the energy expenditure of Paramecium, we simultaneously measured the oxygen consumption rate, using an optic fluorescence oxygen sensor, and the swimming speed, which was evaluated by the optical slice method. The standard metabolic rate (SMR, the rate of energy consumption exclusively for physiological activities other than(More)
Microtubule sliding was induced in axonemes obtained from isolated cilia of Paramecium caudatum when they were exposed to a reactivating solution containing ATP after mild treatment with trypsin. Over a very wide range of concentrations (1 nM-4 mM), Ca2+ in the reactivating solution had no effect on the proportion of axonemes that disintegrated as the(More)
Transition from immotile to motile flagella may involve a series of states, in which some of regulatory mechanisms underlying normal flagellar movement are working with others being still suppressed. To address ourselves to the study of starting transients of flagella, we analyzed flagellar movement of sea urchin sperm whose motility initiation had been(More)
Speract, a sperm-activating peptide (SAP) from sea urchin eggs, induces various sperm responses including a transient increase in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration. However, it has not been clarified how speract modulates sperm motility and whether it functions as a chemoattractant. To confirm the effect of speract on sperm motility, we observed the(More)
Asterosap, a sperm-activating peptide (SAP) from the starfish egg jelly coat, is diffusible and controls a cGMP-signalling pathway in starfish sperm in the same manner as resact, a potent chemoattracting SAP in sea urchins. This fact suggests that asterosap may serve as a chemoattractant like resact at concentrations with appropriate gradients. Since(More)
Mechanisms of gravitactic behaviors of aquatic microorganisms were investigated in terms of their mechanical basis of gravity-dependent orientation. Two mechanical mechanisms have been considered as possible sources of the orientation torque generated on the inert body. One results from the differential density within an organism (the gravity-buoyancy(More)
AstroNewt experiment explores the effects of earth gravity on the early development of Japanese red-bellied newt, Cynops pyrrhogaster. Since female newts keep spermatophore in cloaca, fertilized eggs could be obtained without mating. Fertilization of newt's egg occurs just prior to spawning, so that gonadotrophic cues applied to females in orbit leads to(More)
Biological effects of gravity was examined in embryonic development of Japanese red bellied newt. Two space newt missions were conducted in 1994 and 1995. The Second International Microgravity Laboratory was flown in 1994 as one of the SpaceLab missions. Space Flyer Unit, a Japanese space platform, was delivered to the earth orbit by the third launch of the(More)
Bioconvection is a result of the negative gravitactic behavior of microorganisms. When the top-heavy density gradient generated by gravitaxis grows sufficiently large, an overturning convection occurs leading to a formation of characteristic patterns, which involve highly concentrated aggregation of cells into extended two-dimensional structures. Although(More)