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In order to characterize the energy expenditure of Paramecium, we simultaneously measured the oxygen consumption rate, using an optic fluorescence oxygen sensor, and the swimming speed, which was evaluated by the optical slice method. The standard metabolic rate (SMR, the rate of energy consumption exclusively for physiological activities other than(More)
Microtubule sliding was induced in axonemes obtained from isolated cilia of Paramecium caudatum when they were exposed to a reactivating solution containing ATP after mild treatment with trypsin. Over a very wide range of concentrations (1 nM-4 mM), Ca2+ in the reactivating solution had no effect on the proportion of axonemes that disintegrated as the(More)
Transition from immotile to motile flagella may involve a series of states, in which some of regulatory mechanisms underlying normal flagellar movement are working with others being still suppressed. To address ourselves to the study of starting transients of flagella, we analyzed flagellar movement of sea urchin sperm whose motility initiation had been(More)
Speract, a sperm-activating peptide (SAP) from sea urchin eggs, induces various sperm responses including a transient increase in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration. However, it has not been clarified how speract modulates sperm motility and whether it functions as a chemoattractant. To confirm the effect of speract on sperm motility, we observed the(More)
Asterosap, a sperm-activating peptide (SAP) from the starfish egg jelly coat, is diffusible and controls a cGMP-signalling pathway in starfish sperm in the same manner as resact, a potent chemoattracting SAP in sea urchins. This fact suggests that asterosap may serve as a chemoattractant like resact at concentrations with appropriate gradients. Since(More)
Mechanisms of gravitactic behaviors of aquatic microorganisms were investigated in terms of their mechanical basis of gravity-dependent orientation. Two mechanical mechanisms have been considered as possible sources of the orientation torque generated on the inert body. One results from the differential density within an organism (the gravity-buoyancy(More)
It has been reported that Paramecium proliferates faster when cultured under microgravity in orbit, and slower when cultured under hypergravity. This shows that the proliferation rate of Paramecium affected by gravity. The effect of gravity on Paramecium proliferation has been argued to be direct in a paper with an axenic culture under hypergravity. To(More)
The "Frog in Space" (FRIS) experiment marked a major step for Japanese space life science, on the occasion of the first space flight of a Japanese cosmonaut. At the core of FRIS were six Japanese tree frogs, Hyla japonica, flown on Space Station Mir for 8 days in 1990. The behavior of these frogs was observed and recorded under microgravity. The frogs took(More)
Japanese tree frogs (Hyla japonica) were flown to the space station MIR and spent eight days in orbit during December, 1990. Under microgravity, their postures and behaviors were observed and recorded. On the MIR, floating frogs stretched four legs out, bent their bodies backward and expanded their abdomens. Frogs on a surface often bent their neck(More)