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Cleft palate and skull malformations represent some of the most frequent congenital birth defects in the human population. Previous studies have shown that TGFbeta signaling regulates the fate of the medial edge epithelium during palatal fusion and postnatal cranial suture closure during skull development. It is not understood, however, what the functional(More)
Smad4 is a central intracellular effector of TGF-beta signaling. Smad-independent TGF-beta pathways, such as those mediated by p38 MAPK, have been identified in cell culture systems, but their in vivo functional mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of TGF-beta signaling in tooth and palate development and noted that conditional(More)
Palatal fusion is a complex, multi-step developmental process; the consequence of failure in this process is cleft palate, one of the most common birth defects in humans. Previous studies have shown that regression of the medial edge epithelium (MEE) upon palatal fusion is required for this process, and TGF-beta signaling plays an important role in(More)
BACKGROUND It has been proposed that 0.5-mm-slice multislice computed tomography (MSCT) is a noninvasive tool for the detection of atherosclerotic plaque, but the validity of such an assessment has not been demonstrated by an invasive investigation. The present study was performed to compare the 0.5-mm-slice MSCT density of plaques with intravascular(More)
Members of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily are critical regulators for wound healing. Transduction of TGF-beta signaling depends on activation of Smad2 and Smad3 by heteromeric complexes of ligand-specific receptors. Mice lacking Smad3 show accelerated wound healing, whereas the biological significance of Smad2-mediated TGF-beta(More)
Previous studies have demonstrated that TGFbeta induces a smooth muscle fate in primary neural crest cells in culture. By crossing a conditional allele of the type II TGFbeta receptor with the neural crest-specific Wnt1cre transgene, we have addressed the in vivo requirement for TGFbeta signaling in smooth muscle specification and differentiation. We find(More)
The regeneration of lost periodontal ligament (PDL) and alveolar bone is the purpose of periodontal tissue engineering. The goal of the present study was to assess the suitability of 3 odontogenic progenitor populations from dental pulp, PDL, and dental follicle for periodontal regeneration when exposed to natural and synthetic apatite surface topographies.(More)
Transforming growth factor (TGF) -beta3 is known to selectively regulate the disappearance of murine medial edge epithelium (MEE) during palatal fusion. Previous studies suggested that the selective function of TGF-beta3 in MEE was conducted by TGF-beta receptors. Further studies were needed to demonstrate that the TGF-beta signaling mediators were indeed(More)
We report on the very-low-frequency earthquakes occurring in the transition zone of the subducting plate interface along the Nankai subduction zone in southwest Japan. Seismic waves generated by very-low-frequency earthquakes with seismic moment magnitudes of 3.1 to 3.5 predominantly show a long period of about 20 seconds. The seismicity of(More)
Tooth eruption is a multifactorial process involving movement of existing tissues and formation of new tissues coordinated by a complex set of genetic events. We have used the model of the unopposed rodent molar to study morphological and genetic mechanisms involved in axial movement of teeth. Following extraction of opposing upper molars, lower molars(More)