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Lines of evidence indicate that both the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC) (areas 45/12) and dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) (rostral F2 in area 6) are crucially involved in conditional visuomotor behavior, in which it is required to determine an action based on an associated visual object. However, virtually no direct projections appear to exist between(More)
We examined the organization of multisynaptic projections from the basal ganglia (BG) to the dorsal premotor area in macaques. After injection of the rabies virus into the rostral sector of the caudal aspect of the dorsal premotor area (F2r) and the caudal sector of the caudal aspect of the dorsal premotor area (F2c), second-order neuron labeling occurred(More)
Magnetoencephalographic (MEG) studies have revealed enhancement of neural activity of the N1m response of auditory evoked fields in long-term trained musicians, reflecting neuroplastic modification of the representation of the auditory cortex. In contrast, the amplitude of the P2 response of auditory evoked potentials is modified by musical experience, with(More)
Embouchure dystonia is a focal task-specific disorder involving abnormal non-coordinated movements and involuntary muscle contraction around the mouth. In professional brass players it is often so disabling that patients have to limit or give up their occupation. We examined the somatosensory homuncular representation and measured gap detection sensitivity(More)
In the caudal part of the dorsal premotor cortex of macaques (area F2), both anatomical and physiological studies have identified two rostrocaudally separate sectors. The rostral sector (F2r) is located medial to the genu of the arcuate sulcus, and the caudal sector (F2c) is located lateral to the superior precentral dimple. Here we examined the sites of(More)
Rotavirus is a dsRNA virus that infects epithelial cells that line the surface of the small intestine. It causes severe diarrheal illness in children and ∼500,000 deaths per year worldwide. We studied the mechanisms by which intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) sense rotavirus infection and signal IFN-β production, and investigated the importance of IFN-β(More)
The Rab3 GDP/GTP exchange protein (Rab3 GEP) activates the Rab3 small GTP-binding protein (G protein) family, including Rab3A that is an important member controlling synaptic vesicle trafficking. Here, we examined the role of Rab3 GEP in regulating neurotransmitter release in autapses of mouse hippocampal neurons in culture. The release probability was(More)
Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a pleiotropic cytokine that affects various functions, including tumor development. Although the importance of IL-6 in gastric cancer has been documented in experimental and clinical studies, the mechanism by which IL-6 promotes gastric cancer remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of IL-6 in the epithelial-stromal(More)
Helicobacter pylori induces NF-kappaB activation, leading to mucosal inflammation via cag pathogenicity island. Although recent studies have implicated several candidate proteins of both H. pylori and host, the molecular mechanism by which H. pylori activates NF-kappaB remains unclear. The aim of this study was to analyze the mechanism of cag pathogenicity(More)