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Lines of evidence indicate that both the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC) (areas 45/12) and dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) (rostral F2 in area 6) are crucially involved in conditional visuomotor behavior, in which it is required to determine an action based on an associated visual object. However, virtually no direct projections appear to exist between(More)
We examined the organization of multisynaptic projections from the basal ganglia (BG) to the dorsal premotor area in macaques. After injection of the rabies virus into the rostral sector of the caudal aspect of the dorsal premotor area (F2r) and the caudal sector of the caudal aspect of the dorsal premotor area (F2c), second-order neuron labeling occurred(More)
BACKGROUND As patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at high risk of developing coronary artery disease (CAD), it is important to stratify their cardiovascular risk. We investigated whether peripheral endothelial dysfunction is associated with the presence of CAD in patients with CKD and is a predictor of cardiovascular events. METHODS We enrolled(More)
Few virulence determinants of Helicobacter pylori have been tested in vivo. We conducted this study to establish an animal model for their screening. Six-week-old male Mongolian gerbils were inoculated with wild-type H. pylori (TN2) or its isogenic mutant with deletion of cagE (TN2DeltacagE), total cag pathogenicity island (TN2DeltacagPAI), HP0499(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy is effective at reducing the incidence of gastric cancer; however, gastric cancer still develops after eradication. We conducted a cohort study to elucidate the risk factors for gastric cancer development after successful H pylori eradication therapy. METHODS From June 1998 to December 2012 we(More)
AIM To elucidate the association between small bowel diseases (SBDs) and positive fecal occult blood test (FOBT) in patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB). METHODS Between February 2008 and August 2013, 202 patients with OGIB who performed both capsule endoscopy (CE) and FOBT were enrolled (mean age; 63.6 ± 14.0 years, 118 males, 96(More)
Magnetoencephalographic (MEG) studies have revealed enhancement of neural activity of the N1m response of auditory evoked fields in long-term trained musicians, reflecting neuroplastic modification of the representation of the auditory cortex. In contrast, the amplitude of the P2 response of auditory evoked potentials is modified by musical experience, with(More)
RAS signaling is frequently deregulated in human neoplasms. However, RAS mutations have been found in only a small proportion of human gastric cancers, implicating other mechanisms in the activation of RAS signaling in gastric tumorigenesis. We have previously reported that decreased expression of RAS protein activator like-1 (RASAL1), a member of the(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) is an important transcription factor involved in various biological processes, including carcinogenesis. However, it is unknown whether NF-kappaB activation is involved in gastric carcinogenesis. METHODS To explore the roles of inhibitor of kappaB kinase (IKKbeta), the key kinase for NF-kappaB(More)
Although Helicobacter pylori is classified as a definite carcinogen, the mechanism underlying gastric carcinogenesis is not yet clear. We previously have shown that H. pylori activates an antiapoptotic gene, the cellular inhibitor of apoptosis protein 2 (c-IAP2), the underlying mechanism of which was investigated in the present study. cDNA array and(More)