Yoshihiko Tagawa

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BACKGROUND [11C]Flumazenil and positron emission tomography (PET) are used clinically to assess gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic function and to localize epileptic foci prior to resective surgery. Enhanced P-glycoprotein (P-gp) activity has been reported in epilepsy and this may confound interpretation of clinical scans if [11C]flumazenil is a P-gp(More)
Weight training (WT) is the most common method of maintaining and increasing muscle strength. WT, however, is not always useful as it requires the external resistance and stabilization. We have developed a "hybrid training" (HYB) approach that avoids these problems by using electrically stimulated muscles to provide resistance to the motion of a muscle(More)
OBJECTIVE The efficacy, and even the depth, of muscle stimulation during surface electrode neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) is a matter of debate. This study addresses these issues by assessing the utility of a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique in localizing and quantitating changes in the nature of MRI signals in the quadriceps muscle(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess an exercise program that uses electrically stimulated antagonists to resist agonist muscle contractions. DESIGN In 1 limb, electrically stimulated antagonists resisted elbow flexion and extension. In the other, stimulation occurred without volitional muscle contraction. SETTING A biomechanics laboratory in Japan. PARTICIPANTS(More)
UNLABELLED The aim of the present study was to investigate if flumazenil blood-brain barrier transport and binding to the benzodiazepine site on the γ-aminobutyric acid A (GABA(A)) receptor complex is altered in an experimental model of epilepsy and subsequently to study if changes in P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated efflux of flumazenil at the blood-brain(More)
The binding of PET radiotracer [(11)C]flumazenil to the GABA(A) receptors is described by the receptor density (B(max)) and binding affinity (K(D)). The estimation of B(max) and K(D) is usually based on Scatchard analysis including at least two PET scans at steady state of various specific activities. Recently, a novel full saturation method to estimate(More)
Extreme skeletal muscle atrophy is rampant in astronauts exposed to extended periods of microgravity (muG), and it is one of the main problems in human space exploration. A "Hybrid training" (HYB) method utilizing combined electrical stimulation and voluntary muscle contraction has been developed as a possible solution. A wearable HYB device and a virtual(More)
The pharmacokinetics (PK) (absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion) of peginesatide, a synthetic, PEGylated, investigational, peptide-based erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA), was evaluated in rats. The PK profile was evaluated at 0.1-5 mg·kg(-1) IV using unlabeled or [(14)C]-labeled peginesatide. Mass balance, tissue distribution and metabolism(More)
A hybrid training system (HTS) has been developed as the combined application of electrical stimulation (ES) and volitional contractions (VC), using electrically stimulated eccentric antagonist muscle contractions as a resistance to voluntary agonist muscle contractions. The purpose of the present study is to compare the metabolic cost between cycling(More)
Conventional neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) results in surface muscle contraction but high electrical stimulation intensity is required to activate the deep muscles. Therefore, NMES is not useful for training at complicated sites such as the forearm. To make NMES more effective we developed a hybrid training method (HYB), consisting of(More)