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During transduction of an apoptotic (death) signal into the cell, there is an alteration in the permeability of the membranes of the cell's mitochondria, which causes the translocation of the apoptogenic protein cytochrome c into the cytoplasm, which in turn activates death-driving proteolytic proteins known as caspases. The Bcl-2 family of proteins, whose(More)
Through direct interaction with the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC), proapoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family such as Bax and Bak induce apoptogenic cytochrome c release in isolated mitochondria, whereas BH3-only proteins such as Bid and Bik do not directly target the VDAC to induce cytochrome c release. To investigate the biological significance of(More)
Approximately half of the neurons produced during embryogenesis normally die before adulthood. Although target-derived neurotrophic factors are known to be major determinants of programmed cell death--apoptosis--the molecular mechanisms by which trophic factors interfere with cell death regulation are largely unknown. Overexpression of the bcl-2(More)
Mitochondria play an important role in energy production, Ca2+ homeostasis and cell death. In recent years, the role of the mitochondria in apoptotic and necrotic cell death has attracted much attention. In apoptosis and necrosis, the mitochondrial permeability transition (mPT), which leads to disruption of the mitochondrial membranes and mitochondrial(More)
From an acute B-cell leukemia cell line, a DNA probe was obtained that was specific for chromosome 18 and flanked the heavy chain joining region of the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus on chromosome 14. This probe detected rearrangement of the homologous DNA segment in the leukemic cells and in follicular lymphoma cells with the t(14:18) chromosome(More)
Macroautophagy is a process that leads to the bulk degradation of subcellular constituents by producing autophagosomes/autolysosomes. It is believed that Atg5 (ref. 4) and Atg7 (ref. 5) are essential genes for mammalian macroautophagy. Here we show, however, that mouse cells lacking Atg5 or Atg7 can still form autophagosomes/autolysosomes and perform(More)
In this study, the joining sequences between chromosomes 14 and 18 on the 14q+ chromosomes of a patient with pre-B-cell leukemia and four patients with follicular lymphoma carrying a t(14;18) chromosome translocation were analyzed. In each case, the involved segment of chromosome 18 has recombined with the immunoglobulin heavy-chain joining segment (JH) on(More)
Recombinant DNA probes were cloned for the areas flanking the breakpoint on chromosome 18 in cells from a patient with acute lymphocytic leukemia of the B-cell type; cells of this line carry the t(14;18) chromosomal translocation. Two of the probes detected DNA rearrangements in approximately 60 percent of the cases of follicular lymphoma screened. In(More)
Apoptosis is defined by several unique morphological nuclear changes, such as chromatin condensation and nuclear fragmentation. These changes are triggered by the activation of a family of cysteine proteases called caspases, and caspase-activated DNase (CAD/DFF40) and lamin protease (caspase-6) have been implicated in some of these changes. CAD/DFF40(More)
We have cloned the mouse bcl-2 (mbcl-2) genomic locus and analyzed it in detail. The gene is comprised of two exons separated by more than 15 kb. Two species of mRNAs are produced, and DNA sequencing analysis shows that they code for two proteins differing at their C terminus: a 7.5 kb transcript codes for a polypeptide of 236 amino acids, mbcl-2 alpha, and(More)