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The role of cross-sectional imaging in the diagnosis of Crohn disease has expanded with recent technologic advances in computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging that allow rapid acquisition of high-resolution images of the intestines. To acquire images of diagnostic quality, administration of a fairly large amount of intraluminal contrast(More)
There is increasing evidence that IL-6 plays an important role in the pathophysiology of acute pancreatitis via its broad proinflammatory actions. To identify the local biosynthetic site for IL-6 in human pancreas, we investigated IL-6 secretion in human pancreatic periacinar myofibroblasts. IL-6 secretion was determined by ELISA and Northern blotting. The(More)
Multidrug resistance protein 4 (MRP4) functions as an efflux pump of nucleoside monophosphate analogs, such as 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) and 6-thioguanine nucleotide (6-TGN). A single-nucleotide polymorphism in human MRP4 (rs3765534) dramatically reduces MRP4 function and results in the intracellular accumulation of 6-TGN. In this study, we investigated the(More)
Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis is a powerful tool to assess the diversity of a microbial community. In this study, we performed T-RFLP analysis of the fecal microbiota from patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and those with Crohn’s disease (CD). Thirty-one patients with UC, 31 patients with CD, and 30 healthy(More)
mesenchymal cells that exhibit the ultrastructural features of both fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells, and they are characterized by positive immunoreactivity for a-smooth muscle actin (a-SMA) and vimentin, but negative immunoreactivity for desmin (Figs. 1A and B).4–6,7 SEMFs are distinguished from smooth muscle cells, which express a-SMA but are negative(More)
BACKGROUND Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) analysis is a powerful tool to assess the diversity of complexed microbiota. This permits rapid comparison of microbiota from many samples. In this study, we performed T-RFLP analysis of the fecal microbiota from patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). METHODS Forty-four patients with UC(More)
The pathogenic mechanisms responsible for inflammatory bowel disease, especially ulcerative colitis (UC), are poorly understood. In animal models, the oral administration of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induces colitis, which exhibits several clinical and histological features similar to UC. In addition, the longstanding administration of DSS also induces(More)
BACKGROUND Enzyme-treated rice fiber (ERF) is a recently developed prebiotic product made from rice bran by heat-resistant amylase, protease and hemicellulase treatment. Although the detailed mechanism of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is still unclear, the role of the resident luminal bacteria and its interaction on the mucosal barrier seem to be an(More)
The barrier functions in epithelial and endothelial cells seem to be very important for maintaining normal biological homeostasis. However, it is unclear whether or how bile acids affect the epithelial barrier. We examined the bile acid-induced disruption of the epithelial barrier. We measured the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) of Caco-2 cells(More)
Luminal nutrition is important for maintenance of gastrointestinal mucosal structure and function. In particular, short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), metabolic products of anaerobic bacterial fermentation of dietary fiber and resistant starch, are particularly important as the preferred respiratory fuel of the colonocytes. A variety of biological effects of(More)