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The purpose of this study was to characterize blood-brain barrier (BBB) transport of oxycodone, a cationic opioid agonist, via the pyrilamine transporter, a putative organic cation transporter, using conditionally immortalized rat brain capillary endothelial cells (TR-BBB13). Oxycodone and [3H]pyrilamine were both transported into TR-BBB13 cells in a(More)
Diphenhydramine (DPHM) and oxycodone are weak bases that are able to form cations. Both drugs show active uptake at the blood-brain barrier (BBB). There is thus a possibility for a pharmacokinetic interaction between them by competition for the same uptake transport system. The experiments of the present study were designed to study the transport of DPHM(More)
The effects of transgalactosylated disaccharide (TD) intake on human fecal microflora and their metabolism were investigated in 12 Japanese males. TD is a mixture of sugars, galactosyl galactose, and galactosyl glucose, synthesized from lactose through the transgalactosylation reaction of Streptococcus thermophilus beta-galactosidase. Volunteers took 15 g(More)
To evaluate the significance of P-glycoprotein (P-gp)-mediated active efflux on the blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability of cyclosporin A (CsA) in vivo, we investigated the effects of ATP depletion in the brain and of a multidrug-resistant (MDR) reversing agent on the transport of CsA across the BBB. Using transient brain ischemia obtained by 4-vessel(More)
Interleukin 6 (IL 6) was detected in the culture supernatants of human epidermal keratinocytes and its production was enhanced by stimulation with cytokines. Production of IL 6 in keratinocytes was demonstrated directly by immunohistochemical staining of cultured cells with anti-IL 6 antibody. Keratinocyte-growth was increased by stimulation with(More)
Purpose. This study was carried out to examine the blood-brain barrier(BBB) transport of human basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) andinvestigate its mechanism. Methods. The BBB transport of 125I-bFGF was measured by severalin vivo methods including intravenous administration, in situ internalcarotid artery perfusion, and intracerebral microinjection. The(More)
Purpose. This study was performed to examine the distribution in the brain interstitial fluid (ISF) and the blood-brain barrier (BBB) transport of baclofen in rats by a microdialysis technique. Methods. Following an i.v. bolus administration and/or the constant i.v. infusion of baclofen to the microdialysis cannula-bearing anesthetized rats, the(More)
6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) has been used clinically for 40 years to maintain remission in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). However, central nervous system (CNS) relapses frequently occur in patients with ALL who continuously receive anticancer drugs, including 6-MP, during remission maintenance therapy. The cause of such CNS relapse is not(More)
The effects of galactooligosaccharides intake on fecal microflora and their metabolism were investigated in twelve healthy volunteers, in whom the numbers of indigenous bifidobacteria are comparatively low. The galactooligosaccharides ingestion increased the number of bifidobacteria, but remarkable changes of other organisms were not observed. This sugar(More)
The present study was undertaken to simultaneously measure alpha1 adrenoceptors in rat tissues by [3H]tamsulosin in vivo. In vivo specific [3H]tamsulosin binding was observed in the prostate, vas deferens, aorta, submaxillary gland, spleen, heart, lung, and kidney after i.v. injection of the ligand but not in the cerebral cortex and liver. Specific(More)