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Withdrawal of nutrients triggers an exit from the cell division cycle, the induction of autophagy, and eventually the activation of cell death pathways. The relation, if any, among these events is not well characterized. We found that starved mouse embryonic fibroblasts lacking the essential autophagy gene product Atg7 failed to undergo cell cycle arrest.(More)
The antioxidant property of plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) is thought to be involved in potential anti-atherogenic effects but the exact mechanism is not known. We aimed to reveal the contribution of HDL on the elimination of lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH) derived from oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Oxidized LDL prepared by copper ion-induced(More)
Extracts of Ginkgo biloba (EGB) are a complex product prepared from green leaves of the Ginkgo biloba tree. In the present study, the antidepressant effect of EGB was examined using two behavioral models, the forced swimming test (FST) in rats and tail suspension test (TST) in mice. EGB significantly reduced immobility time in the FST at a dosage of 10 and(More)
1. It is well known that the amplitude of successive monosynaptic reflexes (MSR), elicited by afferent stimuli of constant strength, fluctuate from trial to trial. Previous evidence suggests that such excitability fluctuations within the motor pool can be introduced either pre- and/or postsynaptically. Using unanesthetized decerebrate or decerebrate/spinal(More)
During the lipid peroxidation reaction, lipid hydroperoxides are formed as primary products. Several lines of evidence suggest that lipid hydroperoxides can trigger cell death in many cell types, including neurons. In a screening of lipid hydroperoxides which can induce toxicity in neuronal cells, we found docosahexaenoic acid hydroperoxides (DHA-OOH)(More)
Accumulated evidence shows that some phytochemicals provide beneficial effects for human health. Recently, a number of mechanistic studies have revealed that direct interactions between phytochemicals and functional proteins play significant roles in exhibiting their bioactivities. However, their binding selectivities to biological molecules are considered(More)
Dietary flavonoids, such as quercetin, have long been recognized to protect blood vessels from atherogenic inflammation by yet unknown mechanisms. We have previously discovered the specific localization of quercetin-3-O-glucuronide (Q3GA), a phase II metabolite of quercetin, in macrophage cells in the human atherosclerotic lesions, but the biological(More)
BACKGROUND Although benzene is known to be myelotoxic and to cause myeloid leukemia in humans, the mechanism has not been elucidated. OBJECTIVES We focused on 1,2,4-benzenetriol (BT), a benzene metabolite that generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) by autoxidation, to investigate the toxicity of benzene leading to leukemogenesis. METHODS After exposing(More)
Epidemiological and experimental studies suggest that the consumption of flavonoid-rich diets decreases the risk of various chronic diseases such as cardiovascular diseases. Although studies on the bioavailability of flavonoids have been well-characterized, the tissue and cellular localizations underlying their biological mechanisms are largely unknown. The(More)
Chronic stress has been reported to be an essential factor for depression. In this study, the effect of forced swimming stress on neurotransmitters and cellular signaling pathway contributing to brain functions was investigated using the forced swimming test (FST) in order to understanding of mechanisms to regulate stress signals in brain. Antidepressant(More)