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Withdrawal of nutrients triggers an exit from the cell division cycle, the induction of autophagy, and eventually the activation of cell death pathways. The relation, if any, among these events is not well characterized. We found that starved mouse embryonic fibroblasts lacking the essential autophagy gene product Atg7 failed to undergo cell cycle arrest.(More)
Quercetin is a typical anti-oxidative flavonoid ubiquitously distributed in vegetables. It is likely to act as a bioactive compound by exerting reactive oxygen species (ROS)-scavenging activity and/or binding to specific proteins such as oxidative enzymes and transcriptional factors in signal transduction pathways. Its absorption and metabolism (as well as(More)
A potential role of DNA damage by leukocyte-derived reactive species in carcinogenesis has been suggested. Leukocyte-derived peroxidases, such as myeloperoxidase and eosinophil peroxidase, use hydrogen peroxide and halides (Cl- and Br-) to generate hypohalous acids (HOCl and HOBr), halogenating intermediates. It has been suggested that these oxidants lead(More)
The antioxidant property of plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL) is thought to be involved in potential anti-atherogenic effects but the exact mechanism is not known. We aimed to reveal the contribution of HDL on the elimination of lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH) derived from oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Oxidized LDL prepared by copper ion-induced(More)
Epidemiological studies suggest that the consumption of flavonoid-rich diets decreases the risk of cardiovascular diseases. However, the target sites of flavonoids underlying the protective mechanism in vivo are not known. Quercetin represents antioxidative/anti-inflammatory flavonoids widely distributed in the human diet. In this study, we raised a novel(More)
Myeloperoxidase (MPO), secreted by activated neutrophils and macrophages at the site of inflammation, may be implicated in the oxidation of protein/lipoprotein during the development of cardiovascular diseases. Flavonoids have been suggested to act as antioxidative and anti-inflammatory agents in vivo; however, their molecular actions have not yet been(More)
Quercetin is a major dietary flavonoid found in onions and other vegetables, and potentially has beneficial effects on disease prevention. In the present study, we demonstrate for the first time the effects of dietary quercetin on bone loss and uterine weight loss by ovariectomy in vivo. Female mice were ovariectomized (OVX) and were randomly allocated to 3(More)
Extracts of Ginkgo biloba (EGB) are a complex product prepared from green leaves of the Ginkgo biloba tree. In the present study, the antidepressant effect of EGB was examined using two behavioral models, the forced swimming test (FST) in rats and tail suspension test (TST) in mice. EGB significantly reduced immobility time in the FST at a dosage of 10 and(More)
Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds that occur ubiquitously in foods of plant origin. Some of these molecules exhibit various physiological activities. Among existing drugs, there are a huge number of compounds bearing a flavonoid-related skeleton. Because of the relevance for pharmaceutical research, it would be beneficial to collect these compounds into(More)
Quercetin is widely distributed in vegetables and herbs and has been suggested to act as a neuroprotective agent. Here, we demonstrate that quercetin can accumulate enough to exert biological activity in rat brain tissues. Homogenates of perfused rat brain without detectable hemoglobin contaminants were treated with β-glucuronidase/sulfatase and the(More)