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In the injured central nervous system (CNS), reactive astrocytes form a glial scar and are considered to be detrimental for axonal regeneration, but their function remains elusive. Here we show that reactive astrocytes have a crucial role in wound healing and functional recovery by using mice with a selective deletion of the protein signal transducer and(More)
Osteoclasts are bone-resorbing cells that play a pivotal role in bone remodeling. Osteoclasts form large multinuclear giant cells by fusion of mononuclear osteoclasts. How cell fusion is mediated, however, is unclear. We identify the dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP), a putative seven-transmembrane protein, by a DNA subtraction screen(More)
Axons in the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS) exhibit little regeneration after injury. It has been suggested that several axonal growth inhibitors prevent CNS axonal regeneration. Recent research has demonstrated that semaphorin3A (Sema3A) is one of the major inhibitors of axonal regeneration. We identified a strong and selective inhibitor of(More)
Although recent reports have described multipotent, self-renewing, neural crest-derived stem cells (NCSCs), the NCSCs in various adult rodent tissues have not been well characterized or compared. Here we identified NCSCs in the bone marrow (BM), dorsal root ganglia, and whisker pad and prospectively isolated them from adult transgenic mice encoding neural(More)
OBJECTIVE STAT4 encodes a transcriptional factor that transmits signals induced by several key cytokines, and it might be a key molecule in the development of autoimmune diseases. Recently, a STAT4 haplotype was reported to be associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in Caucasian populations. This was replicated in a(More)
We applied diffusion tensor tractography (DTT), a recently developed MRI technique that reveals the microstructures of tissues based on its ability to monitor the random movements of water molecules, to the visualization of peripheral nerves after injury. The rat sciatic nerve was subjected to contusive injury, and the data obtained from diffusion tensor(More)
Cells that express the NG2 proteoglycan (NG2+ cells) constitute a large cell population in the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS). They give rise to mature oligodendrocytes in culture and are thus considered to be oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs). They proliferate in response to a variety of insults to the CNS, but their ability to(More)
In soft tissue sarcomas, the diagnosis of malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) has been a very controversial issue, and MFH is now considered to be reclassified into pleomorphic subtypes of other sarcomas. To characterize MFH genetically, we used an oligonucleotide microarray to analyze gene expression in 105 samples from 10 types of soft tissue tumors.(More)
Lumbar disc disease (LDD) is caused by degeneration of intervertebral discs of the lumbar spine. One of the most common musculoskeletal disorders, LDD has strong genetic determinants. Using a case-control association study, we identified a functional SNP (1184T --> C, resulting in the amino acid substitution I395T) in CILP, which encodes the cartilage(More)
TNF-alpha, a potent proinflammatory cytokine, is synthesized as a membrane-anchored precursor and proteolytically released from cells. Soluble TNF is the primary mediator of pathologies such as rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease, and endotoxin shock. The TNF-alpha converting enzyme (TACE), a disintegrin and metalloprotease 17 (ADAM17), has emerged as the(More)