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In the injured central nervous system (CNS), reactive astrocytes form a glial scar and are considered to be detrimental for axonal regeneration, but their function remains elusive. Here we show that reactive astrocytes have a crucial role in wound healing and functional recovery by using mice with a selective deletion of the protein signal transducer and(More)
Osteoclasts are bone-resorbing cells that play a pivotal role in bone remodeling. Osteoclasts form large multinuclear giant cells by fusion of mononuclear osteoclasts. How cell fusion is mediated, however, is unclear. We identify the dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP), a putative seven-transmembrane protein, by a DNA subtraction screen(More)
Axons in the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS) exhibit little regeneration after injury. It has been suggested that several axonal growth inhibitors prevent CNS axonal regeneration. Recent research has demonstrated that semaphorin3A (Sema3A) is one of the major inhibitors of axonal regeneration. We identified a strong and selective inhibitor of(More)
Cells that express the NG2 proteoglycan (NG2+ cells) constitute a large cell population in the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS). They give rise to mature oligodendrocytes in culture and are thus considered to be oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs). They proliferate in response to a variety of insults to the CNS, but their ability to(More)
Although recent reports have described multipotent, self-renewing, neural crest-derived stem cells (NCSCs), the NCSCs in various adult rodent tissues have not been well characterized or compared. Here we identified NCSCs in the bone marrow (BM), dorsal root ganglia, and whisker pad and prospectively isolated them from adult transgenic mice encoding neural(More)
TNF-alpha, a potent proinflammatory cytokine, is synthesized as a membrane-anchored precursor and proteolytically released from cells. Soluble TNF is the primary mediator of pathologies such as rheumatoid arthritis, Crohn's disease, and endotoxin shock. The TNF-alpha converting enzyme (TACE), a disintegrin and metalloprotease 17 (ADAM17), has emerged as the(More)
Lumbar disc disease (LDD) is caused by degeneration of intervertebral discs of the lumbar spine. One of the most common musculoskeletal disorders, LDD has strong genetic determinants. Using a case-control association study, we identified a functional SNP (1184T --> C, resulting in the amino acid substitution I395T) in CILP, which encodes the cartilage(More)
BACKGROUND This cross-sectional study was conducted to obtain epidemiologic data on chronic musculoskeletal pain in the Japanese people, and with it a better understanding of the actual conditions and problems involved. METHODS A questionnaire covering basic information, chronic musculoskeletal pain, daily life, quality of life, and social loss was(More)
Controlling osteoclastogenesis is critical to maintain physiological bone homeostasis and prevent skeletal disorders. Although signaling activating nuclear factor of activated T cells 1 (NFATc1), a transcription factor essential for osteoclastogenesis, has been intensively investigated, factors antagonistic to NFATc1 in osteoclasts have not been(More)
Chondrocyte hypertrophy during endochondral ossification is a well-controlled process in which proliferating chondrocytes stop proliferating and differentiate into hypertrophic chondrocytes, which then undergo apoptosis. Chondrocyte hypertrophy induces angiogenesis and mineralization. This step is crucial for the longitudinal growth and development of long(More)