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A research committee supported by the Japanese government conducted a nationwide survey on the epidemiology of acute encephalopathy in Japan using a questionnaire. A total of 983 cases reportedly had acute encephalopathy during the past 3 years, 2007-2010. Among the pathogens of the preceding infection, influenza virus was the most common, followed by human(More)
We elucidated efferent projections of second-order relay neurons (P-cells) activated by afferents originating from slowly adapting pulmonary receptors (SARs) to determine the central pathway of the SAR-evoked reflexes. Special attention was paid to visualizing the P-cell projections within the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS), which may correspond to the(More)
Niemann-Pick disease type C (NPC) is a neurovisceral lipid storage disorder characterized by progressive and widespread neurodegeneration. Although some characteristic symptoms of NPC result from brainstem dysfunction, little information is available about which brainstem structures are affected. In this study, the brainstems of mutant BALB/c NPC1-/- mice(More)
The brains of two patients with Lesch-Nyhan syndrome (LNS) were studied. The concentration of dopamine was decreased in the caudate nucleus of LNS patients. Immunohistochemical methods revealed that the dopamine (DA) D1 and D2 receptor and methionine-enkephalin immunoreactivities (IRs) were increased in the putamen, and less significantly in the caudate(More)
We report a 1-year 6-month-old girl with ganglioglioma in the right medial temporal lobe who showed epileptic spasms in clusters. Spasms occasionally followed a dazed and fearful gaze. Interictal electroencephalography (EEG) showed diffuse bursts of slightly irregular high-voltage spikes and slow waves without hypsarrhythmia. The findings on ictal EEG,(More)
We describe two individuals with the same chromosomal aberrations derived from an unbalanced translocation between chromosomes 8p and 9p, who presented with intellectual disabilities, dysmorphic features, and localization-related epilepsy. Several years after the onset of epilepsy, aggravation of widespread epileptic discharges during sleep resulted in the(More)
To delineate the evolution of non-epileptic and epileptic paroxysmal events in alternating hemiplegia of childhood (AHC), we reviewed clinical information of nine patients (4-40 years) with AHC. Paroxysmal abnormal ocular movements, head turning, and tonic, clonic, or myoclonic limb movements were the initial symptoms (birth-8m) in each patient. Ictal(More)
A case of alternating hemiplegia of childhood is reported. Tonic fits and generalized tonic-clonic seizures developed during her infancy. Frequent twitching and apneic seizures appeared at 16 years of age. Zonisamide transiently suppressed the tonic, twitching and apneic seizures, as well as the facial and neck dystonia. Cranial computed tomography and(More)
Alternating hemiplegia of childhood (AHC) is a rare disorder characterized by repeated plegic attacks, movement disorders, autonomic phenomena, and developmental delay. To obtain insights into the pathophysiology of AHC, we determined the concentrations of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), tissue inhibitor of MMP-1 (TIMP-1), calcitonin gene-related(More)
There are two types of expiratory neurons with augmenting firing patterns (E-AUG neurons), those in the Bötzinger complex (BOT) and those in the caudal ventral respiratory group (cVRG). We studied their axonal projections morphologically using intracellular labeling of single E-AUG neurons with Neurobiotin, in anesthetized, paralyzed and(More)