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Royal jelly (RJ) is an exclusive food for queen honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) that is synthesized and secreted by young worker bees. RJ is also widely used in medical products, cosmetics, and as health foods. However, little is known about RJ functionality and the total protein components, although recent research is attempting to unravel the RJ proteome.(More)
Two proteinaceous cysteine proteinase inhibitors (cystatins) referred to as Sca and Scb were purified to homogeneity from the seeds of sunflower (Heliantas annuus) by gel filtration on Sephadex G-75 followed by a series of ion-exchange column chromatographies and reverse-phase HPLC (RP-HPLC). The isoelectric points (pI) of Sca and Scb were estimated to be(More)
We previously cloned two distinct cDNA clones, NGR1 and NGR3, encoding S-like ribonucleases (RNases) induced by wounding and tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) infection, respectively, in Nicotiana glutinosa leaves. To gain insight into the regulatory mechanism of the RNase genes, we analyzed nucleotide sequences of the genes ngr1 (4.1 kbp) and ngr3 (5.3 kbp),(More)
The midgut environment of anopheline mosquitoes plays an important role in the development of the malaria parasite. Using genetic manipulation of anopheline mosquitoes to change the environment in the mosquito midgut may inhibit development of the malaria parasite, thus blocking malaria transmission. Here we generate transgenic Anopheles stephensi(More)
The Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitors, ETIa and ETIb, and chymotrypsin inhibitor ECI were isolated from the seeds of Erythrina variegata. The proteins were extracted from a defatted meal of seeds with 10 mM phosphate buffer, pH 7.2, containing 0.15 M NaCl, and purified by DEAE-cellulose and Q-Sepharose column chromatographies. The stoichiometry of trypsin(More)
Mushroom can be defined as a macrofungus with a distinctive fruiting body. Mushrooms of class Basidiomycete are primarily wood degradation fungi, but serve as food and a part of traditional medicine used by humans. Although their life cycle is fairly well-established, the information on the molecular components, especially proteins are very limited. Here,(More)
Two cysteine proteinase inhibitors, cystatins Sca and Scb, were previously isolated from sunflower seeds [Kouzuma et al. J. Biochem. 119 (1996) 1106-1113]. A cDNA clone encoding a novel phytocystatin with three repetitive cystatin domains was isolated from a cDNA library of sunflower seeds using the Sca cDNA fragment as a hybridization probe. The cDNA(More)
CEL-III is a Ca(2+)-dependent, galactose/N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc)-specific lectin isolated from the marine invertebrate Cucumaria echinata. This lectin exhibits strong hemolytic activity and cytotoxicity through pore formation in target cell membranes. The amino acid sequence of CEL-III revealed the N-terminal two-thirds to have homology to the(More)
Novel types of proteinase inhibitors with multi-inhibitory activities were generated by replacement of phytocystatin domains in sunflower multi-cystatin (SMC) by the serine proteinase inhibitor BGIT from bitter gourd seeds. Two chimeric inhibitors SMC-T3 and SMC-T23, in which the third domain in SMC and the second and third domains in SMC were replaced by(More)
CEL-III is a Ca(2+)-dependent hemolytic lectin, isolated from the marine invertebrate Cucumaria echinata. The three-dimensional structure of CEL-III/GalNAc and CEL-III/methyl alpha-galactoside complexes was solved by x-ray crystallographic analysis. In these complexes, five carbohydrate molecules were found to be bound to two carbohydrate-binding domains(More)