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Circadian rhythms in drinking and running-wheel (locomotor) activity of rats with 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA, 4 microg/2 microl per rat)-induced lesions in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) were examined under a light-dark (LD) cycle and constant dim light (5 lux). Under the LD cycle, the length of the locomotor activity period was decreased during the dark,(More)
To investigate the development of Arg-vasopressin (AVP) content and its diurnal rhythm in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), AVP was measured by enzyme immunoassay in the rat pup SCN punched out from tissue slices obtained at postnatal day (PD) 1, 5, 10, 12 and 20 from animals maintained under a light-dark cycle (LD). The AVP levels, measured at a(More)
Neural stem/progenitor cells (NPCs) reside in the subventricular zone (SVZ) and dentate gyrus in the adult mammalian brain. It has been reported that endogenous NPCs are activated after brain insults such as ischemic stroke. We investigated whether proliferation and migration of endogenous NPCs are increased after a collagenase-induced small intracerebral(More)
Twenty-four hour patterns in somatostatin (SS)-like immunoreactivity (LI) within the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) were determined by enzyme immunoassay in rats blinded by bilateral orbital enucleation or kept sighted under light-dark conditions. A remarkable circadian rhythm was found in the concentration of SS-LI in the SCN under blinded conditions. The(More)
Metabolic activity in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), a center of biological rhythm, is higher during the daytime than at night. The rhythmic oscillation in the SCN is feedback controlled by the Clock/Bmal1 heterodimer binding to the E-box in target genes (e.g., Arg-vasopressin). Similar transcriptional regulation by Npas2/Bmal1 heterodimer formation(More)
Melatonin, which is released from the pineal gland, influences many physiological events concerned with circadian rhythm. Body temperature levels and rhythmicity are tightly coupled with locomotor activity. To understand the functions of melatonin, we determined the effects of melatonin injection on locomotor activity measured by running-wheel activity and(More)
To examine the roles of Arg-vasopressin (AVP)- and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP)-containing neurons in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in production of circadian rhythmicity of locomotor activity, variations in the contents of AVP and VIP in punched-out SCN tissue and locomotor activity were measured under a light-dark cycle as well as under(More)
We have previously demonstrated that a G1/S-phase cell cycle blocker, deferoxamine (DFO), increased the number of new neurons from rat neurosphere cultures, which correlated with prolonged expression of cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) inhibitor p27(kip1) [H. J. Kim et al. (2006)Brain Research, 1092, 1-15]. The present study focuses on neuronal differentiation(More)
A reliable method to induce neural progenitor/stem cells (NPCs) into dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons has not yet been established. As well, the mechanism involved remains to be elucidated. To induce DAergic differentiation from NPCs, a cytokine mixture (C-Mix) of interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-11, leukemia-inhibitory factor (LIF), and glial-derived neurotrophic(More)
The effect of melatonin on the release of Arg-vasopressin (AVP) was analyzed in a suprachiasmatic nucleus-slice explant culture. The release of AVP into the culture medium exhibited a circadian rhythm, with higher level during the subjective day and lower level during the subjective night. Melatonin (500 nM) inhibited the release of AVP. Luzindole, a MT(2)(More)