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In addition to their well-known role in skeletal movements, the basal ganglia control saccadic eye movements (saccades) by means of their connection to the superior colliculus (SC). The SC receives convergent inputs from cerebral cortical areas and the basal ganglia. To make a saccade to an object purposefully, appropriate signals must be selected out of(More)
Action is controlled by both motivation and cognition. The basal ganglia may be the site where these kinds of information meet. Using a memory-guided saccade task with an asymmetric reward schedule, we show that visual and memory responses of caudate neurons are modulated by expectation of reward so profoundly that a neuron's preferred direction often(More)
Midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons are thought to encode reward prediction error. Reward prediction can be improved if any relevant context is taken into account. We found that monkey DA neurons can encode a context-dependent prediction error. In the first noncontextual task, a light stimulus was randomly followed by reward, with a fixed equal probability. The(More)
Reward is a primary goal of behavior and is crucial for survival of animals. To explore the mechanisms underlying such reward-oriented behavior, we devised a memory-guided saccade task in which only one fixed direction out of four was rewarded, which was called the one-direction-rewarded task (1DR). As the rewarded direction was changed in four blocks,(More)
Brain activity during a verbal fluency task (VFT) has been the target of many functional imaging studies. Most studies using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) have reported major activation in the frontal pole, but those using PET or fMRI have not. This led us to hypothesize that changes in the NIRS signals measured in the forehead during VFT were due to(More)
A subset of caudate neurons fires before cues that instruct the monkey what he should do. To test the hypothesis that the anticipatory activity of such neurons depends on the context of stimulus-reward mapping, we examined their activity while the monkeys performed a memory-guided saccade task in which either the position or the color of a cue indicated(More)
The prefrontal cortex and the basal ganglia form mutually connected networks and are thought to play essential roles together in guiding goal-directed behaviors. Yet, these structures seem to have independent pathways to motor outputs as well, suggesting differential contributions to goal-directed behaviors. We hypothesized that the prefrontal cortex guides(More)
Recent studies have suggested that the basal ganglia are related to motivational control of behavior. To study how motivational signals modulate motor signals in the basal ganglia, we examined activity of midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons and caudate (CD) projection neurons while monkeys were performing a one-direction-rewarded version (1DR) of memory-guided(More)
Many neurons show anticipatory activity in learned tasks. This phenomenon appears to reflect the brain's ability to predict future events. However, what actually is predicted is unknown. Using a memory-guided saccade task, in which only one out of four directions was rewarded in each block of trials, we found that a group of neurons in the monkey caudate(More)