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Reward is a primary goal of behavior and is crucial for survival of animals. To explore the mechanisms underlying such reward-oriented behavior, we devised a memory-guided saccade task in which only one fixed direction out of four was rewarded, which was called the one-direction-rewarded task (1DR). As the rewarded direction was changed in four blocks,(More)
Recent studies have suggested that the basal ganglia are related to motivational control of behavior. To study how motivational signals modulate motor signals in the basal ganglia, we examined activity of midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons and caudate (CD) projection neurons while monkeys were performing a one-direction-rewarded version (1DR) of memory-guided(More)
Midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons are thought to encode reward prediction error. Reward prediction can be improved if any relevant context is taken into account. We found that monkey DA neurons can encode a context-dependent prediction error. In the first noncontextual task, a light stimulus was randomly followed by reward, with a fixed equal probability. The(More)
Brain activity during a verbal fluency task (VFT) has been the target of many functional imaging studies. Most studies using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) have reported major activation in the frontal pole, but those using PET or fMRI have not. This led us to hypothesize that changes in the NIRS signals measured in the forehead during VFT were due to(More)
Many neurons show anticipatory activity in learned tasks. This phenomenon appears to reflect the brain's ability to predict future events. However, what actually is predicted is unknown. Using a memory-guided saccade task, in which only one out of four directions was rewarded in each block of trials, we found that a group of neurons in the monkey caudate(More)
A subset of caudate neurons fires before cues that instruct the monkey what he should do. To test the hypothesis that the anticipatory activity of such neurons depends on the context of stimulus-reward mapping, we examined their activity while the monkeys performed a memory-guided saccade task in which either the position or the color of a cue indicated(More)
Changes in the reward context are associated with changes in neuronal activity in the basal ganglia as well as changes in motor outputs. A typical example is found in the caudate (CD) projection neurons and saccade parameters. It raised the possibility that the changes in CD neuronal activity contribute to the changes in saccade parameters. To examine this(More)
Dopamine (DA) neurons respond to sensory stimuli that predict reward. To understand how DA neurons acquire such ability, we trained monkeys on a one-direction-rewarded version of memory-guided saccade task (1DR) only when we recorded from single DA neurons. In 1DR, position-reward mapping was changed across blocks of trials. In the early stage of training(More)
The prefrontal cortex and the basal ganglia form mutually connected networks and are thought to play essential roles together in guiding goal-directed behaviors. Yet, these structures seem to have independent pathways to motor outputs as well, suggesting differential contributions to goal-directed behaviors. We hypothesized that the prefrontal cortex guides(More)
Several studies have claimed that hemodynamic signals measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) on the forehead exhibit different patterns during a verbal fluency task (VFT) in various psychiatric disorders, whereas many studies have noted that NIRS signals can reflect task-related changes in skin blood flow. If such a task-related skin hemodynamic(More)