Yoriko Nakamura

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BACKGROUND During HIV infection distinct mechanisms drive immune activation of the CD4 and CD8 T cells leading to CD4 T-cell depletion and expansion of the CD8 T-cell pool. This immune activation is polyclonal and extends beyond HIV-specific T cells. One consequence of this immune activation is a profound decrease in IL-7Rα (CD127) expression on memory CD8(More)
The role of anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) during gonad development has been studied extensively in many species of mammal, bird, reptile, and fish but remains unresolved in amphibians. In male mammalian embryos, Sox9 activates AMH expression, which initiates regression of the Müllerian ducts. However, Sox9 (Sry-related HMG box 9) is unlikely to initiate AMH(More)
Here we report that structural changes in gonadal basement membranes during sex differentiation in the frog Rana rugosa are revealed using an antibody to its laminin component. Immunohistochemical staining indicated that the first sexual dimorphism appeared in testicular cords and ovarian cavities in differentiating gonads of tadpoles at St. 25-3W, three(More)
In vertebrates, gonadal production of steroid hormones is regulated by follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) via their receptors designated FSHR and LHR, respectively. We have shown recently that steroid hormones are synthesized in the differentiating gonad of tadpoles during sex determination in the frog Rana rugosa. To elucidate(More)
INTRODUCTION In the Japanese frog Rana (R.) rugosa the androgen receptor (AR) gene on the W chromosome (W-AR) is barely expressed. Previously we showed that incomplete female-to-male sex-reversal occurred in Z-AR transgenic female frogs. To date, however, there is no report showing that AR with androgens can determine genetically programed male sex fate in(More)
In certain species of amphibians gonadal differentiation is influenced by steroid hormones. In the case of the frog Rana rugosa testosterone given to tadpoles reverses sex from female to male, while the opposite reversal - male to female - can be achieved using estradiol-17β. In this study, we investigated whether CYP19 (P450 aromatase), the enzyme(More)
We cloned a cDNA encoding Vasa, a member of the DEAD (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp) family of proteins, from the ovary of the frog Rana rugosa. Comparative alignment of amino acid sequences with known Vasa from several species of vertebrate showed that the R. rugosa orthologue shares eight conserved regions with Vasa from other vertebrates. Vasa gene expression was(More)
The phenotypic sex of many species of amphibians is subject to reversal by steroid hormones. The mechanism of this process, however, still remains largely unknown. As a step toward understanding the histological changes during sex reversal in amphibians, we analyzed two- and three-dimensional (2D and 3D) structures of sex-reversing gonads in Rana rugosa(More)
Androgens play a critical role in testicular differentiation in many species of vertebrates. While female-to-male sex reversal can be induced by testosterone (T) in some species of amphibians, the mechanism still remains largely unknown even at the histological level. In this study, we determined a threshold dosage of T to induce female-to-male sex reversal(More)
Cyp19 is expressed at a high level in the gonad of the female tadpole of the frog Rana rugosa during sex determination. To identify sequence elements important for expression of Cyp19, we isolated a genomic clone (approximately 40 kbp) carrying R. rugosa Cyp19 and analyzed the nucleotide sequence of the 5'-flanking region to search for potential(More)